Who is the future of large-scale pig farming? What opportunities should pig farms seize in the future? -[Xinxin Wulian]
Agriculture is a traditional industry. Compared with the technology Internet industry, her product, technology, and model change cycle is too long. For example, pig breeding, humans have experienced a history of 10,000 years from domesticating pigs to the formation of free-range farming. It did not begin to form large-scale farming until the end of the 19th century, and modern large-scale farming began 40 years ago. China has also started a large-scale breeding model since then. In recent years, IT Internet companies have begun to penetrate into agriculture, such as Netease's Weiyang black pigs, the intelligent farming technology represented by Silicon Valley, and "artificial meat", which have injected new opportunities into this traditional industry. So what is the future development of the pig industry ? Will there be disruptive opportunities like the technology industry?
With an annual output of nearly 700 million pigs, China's pig industry is the world's largest pig-raising country. However, our production end is dominated by a large number of small and medium-sized farmers: there are 50 million pig farms in the country , of which 48 million are free-range farmers with an annual output of less than 50 heads. China's leading pig companies: Wen's, Muyuan, Young Eagle Farming and Livestock, and Zhengbang Technology's 2016 pig production volume were 17.13, 311, 2.47, and 2.26 million, respectively, accounting for 3.64% of the national total. Who will be the future of large-scale pig farms ? We can wait and see.
As the second largest pig farming country in the United States (126 million heads in 2016), there are only 60,000 farms, and most of the stocks are more than 5000 heads. The top five farms account for the total number of heads in the United States. 30% of the amount. In the 1970s, the United States was also a small-scale farmer, mainly small-scale, and completed a transition to large-scale farms in 30 years.
For the industrialized pig industry, scale can reduce the cost of the entire production chain from breeding to slaughter, especially after comparing the situation of the US pig industry, it is easy to conclude that the Chinese pig industry will also move towards large-scale The conclusion of the direction of development.
Scale seems to have become a consensus, but two uncertain factors of technological innovation and agricultural post-industrialization will influence the scale of the scale, and also provide opportunities for subversion in the future development of the pig industry. Taking Silicon Valley as an example, we will see the following opportunities:
Opportunity 1: PSY and FCR replacing traditional aquaculture
At present, the core of industrial pig raising is not to increase PSY (that is, the number of live piglets provided by a sow per year) and reduce FCR (feed-to-meat ratio: refers to the amount of feed consumed by raising one kilogram of livestock and poultry). Does it reduce labor and management costs?
Through new technologies, microbiological technology, mobile smart devices (wearable livestock and poultry) and artificial intelligence to improve breeding efficiency and reduce production costs. For example, smart wearable devices for livestock are mainly on the ears, neck or tail. These devices can detect the core body temperature, activity, position information, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, pH value and ruminant of livestock through the above detection device. This information will be sent to the cloud server in real time through the wireless communication technology on the device.
On the cloud server, intelligent computing will process these data and turn these "boring" data into intuitive information, such as the prediction of possible illness, the estrus period is reached, not eating, activity and so on. This information is then sent to the smart phone or computer of the farm manager in real time, or to the smart wearable device of the livestock. Although these technologies as auxiliary technologies can not reach the main position of the core of breeding, they can become a competitive advantage in technology of breeding enterprises.
The Silicon Valley model is just one direction in which the aquaculture industry is developing towards extreme industrialization, and agriculture has another direction of development: post-industrialization.
Opportunity 2: Make pork more flavorful
We often hear complaints: "Today's meat has no childhood flavor." Although this claim was once scrutinized by the scientific rationalists, the so-called incense is just a little more oil. But new research finds that "childhood fragrance" does exist, and it's not just that there is more fat, this comes from our deeper understanding of taste, smell and food.
We said that the flavor of pork mentioned above is mainly composed of a mixture of "taste" perceived by taste and "fragrance" perceived by smell, and these flavors are related to the content of muscle fat in the pork and the amount of flavor substances. Factors such as pig age, breed, sex, nutrition, feeding management, and pre-mortem conditions determine the amount of intramuscular fat content and flavor substances.
What kind of pig flavor is better? Generally, a long feeding period is better than a short feeding period (the main flavor substances start to be produced after 8 months); traditional Chinese black pigs are better than imported white pigs; The amount of activity) crowded in a pig cage is not good ... It seems that the taste did exist when I was young.
In the future, with the escalation of consumption, consumers will pay more attention to the taste of pork from full to good.
Opportunity 3: Linear industrial thinking to ecological thinking
Let us recall the scent of childhood, but it is just a hint from nature. When the industrialized agricultural model of linear thinking brings us great food abundance, what we lose is not just the "taste of childhood". Hidden hunger is a more serious problem.
Hidden Hunger refers to the hunger symptoms of hidden nutritional requirements caused by the body's nutritional imbalance or lack of certain vitamins and essential minerals, while there is excessive intake of other nutrients. It is generally considered to be a symptom of hunger caused by the inability to guarantee the absorption of normal nutrients. The focus is on elemental imbalance rather than fullness.
Hidden hunger, in addition to partial eclipse and eating too much refined food, today's agricultural products themselves are "hungry." Studies at home and abroad have shown that the nutritional content of agricultural products is not as good as before. For example, the vitamins and trace element contents of most vegetables and fruits have been reduced by about half compared with 10 years ago. The main reason is that large-scale and unitary petrochemical agricultural models ignore biological diversity and treat agricultural production linearly.
Such disadvantages exist in the industrialized white pig breeding model. Another disadvantage of this model is that there are some long-term hidden costs, such as the hidden dangers of antibiotic use, such as the hidden dangers of environmental protection of fecal disposal.
To solve these problems, it is necessary to shift to the ecological model. Although ecological free-range farming combined with planting and breeding has no advantage in the efficiency and cost of single products, the quality of the product is better, and it can have multiple outputs without food safety And environmentally friendly long-term hidden costs.
Opportunity 4: From ecology to life
The development of agricultural production from linear thinking to ecological thinking is a change in production mode. At the same time, agriculture is also moving from a single production function (agricultural industry era) to multiple functions that simultaneously educate and live (agricultural post-industrial era).
Now that you are going to visit a pig farm, you are definitely not willing to, so it is dirty and smelly. But we can see that many children are willing to feed piglets in ecological farms, to watch the pig races and dive. The Fico supermarket in Italy directly moves the pig farm into the supermarket, and you want to see the money to buy tickets. Netease Weiyang will also build a pig farm into a resort, allowing you to go there for vacation.
Whether it is planting or farming in agriculture, it is a part of natural life itself. While urbanization and industrialization isolate us from nature, we also industrialize agriculture singly, leaving nature far from us. Nowadays, as we reflect on industrialization and urbanization, we are gradually becoming aware of the diversity of agricultural functions.
Let agriculture give full play to her versatility. In this regard, Weiyang, No.1 native pig, Huimingshan, Jingqishen and some comprehensive ecological farms have advantages. After all, others can only sell pork, and not only pork can be sold here. You can also watch, play, and learn.
Moderate scale is the direction of the development of the breeding industry. There is no doubt about this consensus, but emerging technologies and post-industrialization of agriculture will shape the scale of the scale and may even bring subversive opportunities.
March 29, 2018
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd