How do large-scale pig farms do a good job of pig farm environmental monitoring from the outside to the inside? -[Xinxin Wulian]
In the past 20 years, China's breeding industry has developed rapidly and achieved promising results. The total output of meat, eggs, and poultry has maintained the world's first, which has made great contributions to improving people's living standards, adjusting people's dietary structure and increasing farmers' income. . However, it is inevitable that a large number of "pollution of livestock products" will occur. The random dumping and discharge of livestock manure and aquaculture sewage will be widespread. The environment in concentrated farms will deteriorate and indirectly pollute water sources, soil and air. Nowadays, the disposal of livestock and poultry excreta has become a burden on intensive aquaculture, and the control of the farm environment is imminent. Let ’s take a pig farm as an example to see how to do a good job of environmental monitoring on the farm.
Farm environmental control mainly includes two aspects:
猪场外部环境的控制： I. Control of the external environment of the pig farm:
1. Plant trees and grass for greening:
Planting trees and grass around the pig farm and in the idle area for environmental greening has an important effect on improving the microclimate. All roadside trees are planted on both sides of the road in the pig farm. Fast-growing, tall deciduous trees such as fast-growing poplars are planted between each pig house. Vegetables , flowers and shrubs are planted in the open space in the farm area, and 5-10m are planted outside the farm area. Wide windbreak. In this way, in the cold winter, when the external wind speed is 4.6-5.2m per second, the wind speed in the field can be reduced by 70% -80%; and the hot summer temperature (30-40 ~ (2) can be reduced by 3-8 ℃, can also reduce toxic and harmful gases in the air of the site by 25%, odor by 50%, dust by 30% -50%, and bacteria in the air by 20% -80%. Of course, these values are due to windbreaks. The height, tree variety, and planting density vary.
2. Do a good job in manure treatment:
The daily excretion of a pig is 6kg, which is 5 times the amount of excretion of a human, and the annual output of urine is about 2.5t. If water flushing is used, the daily sewage discharge per pig is about 30kg. A thousand pig farms excrete 6t of feces and urine per day, and 2500t of feces and urine per day. Using sewage flushing to produce 30t of wastewater per day, more than 10,000 tons of wastewater per year. It is determined that the BOD (Biochemical Gas Requirement) in adult feces of adult pigs is 13 times that of human feces. If these high-concentration organic sewage can not be effectively treated, it will inevitably cause the overflow of manure, the foul smell, and the breeding of mosquitoes and flies in the storage yard. Among them, residual disinfectants such as acid, alkali, phenol, aldehyde, and chloride that exceed the standard can kill fish and shrimp and can wither the plant. If you neglect or do not properly handle the manure of the pig farm, it will not only directly endanger the health of the herd, but also affect the living environment of the people nearby.
猪舍内部环境的控制： Control of the internal environment of the pigsty:
According to the biological characteristics of pigs, small pigs are afraid of cold, large pigs are afraid of heat, and large and small pigs are not resistant to humidity. They also need clean air and certain light. Therefore, the structure and process design of large-scale pig farms Consider these issues.
These factors are influencing and restricting each other. For example, in winter, in order to maintain the temperature of the house, the doors and windows are closed, but the air is polluted; in summer, flushing the pig body and the pigpen can reduce the temperature, but increase the humidity in the house. It can be seen that the microclimate regulation in the piggery must be comprehensively considered to create an environmental condition conducive to the growth and development of the pig herd.
Temperature plays a leading role in environmental factors. Pigs are very sensitive to the temperature of the environment, mainly in the following aspects:
Piglets are afraid of cold. Low temperature is most harmful to newborn piglets. If exposed to 1 ℃ for 2 hours, they can freeze, stun, and even freeze to death. Even if the adult pigs are kept at 8 ℃ for a long time, they will not be frozen. If you eat or drink, your body will tremble, and the thin pig will freeze and stand steadily at -5 ℃. At the same time, cold is the main cause of diarrheal diseases such as piglet yellow, white peony, and infectious gastroenteritis, and it can also induce respiratory diseases. Tests have shown that if the nursery pigs live in an environment below 1 ° C, their weight gain will be reduced by 4.3% compared with the control, and feed compensation will be reduced by about 5%. In the cold season, the house temperature of adult pigs should not be lower than 10 ℃, and the nursery should be kept at 18 ℃. Piglets between 2 and 3 weeks of age need about 26 ° C, while piglets under 1 week of age require an environment of 30 ° C. As for the temperature in the incubator, the temperature difference between day and night in spring and autumn can reach more than 10 ° C. It is easy to induce various diseases of pigs. Therefore, in this period, timely closing and opening of doors and windows are required to reduce the temperature difference between day and night.
Adult pigs have poor heat resistance. When the temperature is higher than 28 ° C, big pigs weighing more than 75kg may suffer from asthma. If it exceeds 30 ° C, the feed intake of pigs will be significantly reduced, feed returns will be reduced, and the growth rate will be slow. When the temperature is higher than 35 ° C, and no heatstroke prevention measures are taken, individual fattening pigs may suffer from heatstroke, pregnant sows may cause flow chan, boar sex yu decline, and semen quality is poor, and it is difficult to be within 2 to 3 months. restore. The temperature in the barn depends on the source of heat in the barn and the degree of heat loss. In the absence of heating equipment, the source of heat mainly depends on the heat emitted by the pig body and sunlight. The amount of heat lost is related to the structure, building materials, ventilation equipment and management of the pig house. Houses should add heating or insulation facilities. In the hot summer, adult pigs should be protected from heatstroke and cooling. Such as increasing ventilation, showering, speeding up heat loss, reducing pig density, and reducing heat sources in the house, this can effectively improve the performance of finishing pigs, pregnant sows and breeding boars.
Application of IoT technology in breeding:
CO2, NH3, H2S, temperature, humidity and other sensors are installed in the piggery using the agricultural Internet of Things technology for online monitoring of the environment. Pig farmers can set thresholds on the intelligent breeding platform according to experience requirements. When the collected environmental data exceeds the threshold, the system can alarm. Set the alarm mode according to your needs, which can be set to platform alarm, mobile phone SMS alarm, etc. In order to further improve the intelligence of the environmental regulation and the timeliness of the regulation of the breeding environment, and reduce the inadequate management caused by human negligence, when the environmental abnormality alarms, the intelligent breeding platform can control the control equipment in a coordinated manner, according to the set parameters Value, to perform linkage control on infrared lamps, fans, wet curtains, etc. According to estimates, with normal standardized farming, 24 people are required to produce 10,000 pigs. After the introduction of a full set of Internet of Things technology, only 1 person is required to produce 10,000 pigs. Adopting the Internet of Things technology, the sow's conception rate and litter rate are 3% to 4% higher than those of ordinary pig house breeding. The sow reproduction rate can be increased by 10%, and the effective parity can be increased by 1 to 2 parities. Increased by 5%, feed utilization rate can be increased by 6%, the converted economic benefits can increase by about 30%, each pig can save costs of 90 yuan, each sow breeding benefit increased by 250 yuan.
March 9, 2018
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd