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As early as the 1990s, China began to study the application of precision agriculture . However, due to the special characteristics of domestic agriculture and low agricultural technology, it is difficult to apply and popularize it on a large scale. In 2013, Germany introduced the concept of Industry 4.0, which clarified the application of information technology in industry. Agriculture 4.0, a modern agricultural form supported by the Internet of Things , big data , mobile internet, and cloud computing technologies, is also being proposed.
With the maturity of technology and falling costs, domestic agriculture is facing a shortage of manpower, coexistence of waste irrigation and water shortage in farmland, insufficient investment in agricultural science and technology, and extensive agricultural farming, "precision agriculture" has also become the trend of domestic agricultural transformation and upgrading. From official to private, this concept is often mentioned, and local governments have also launched demonstration projects.
Precision agriculture is a benign cycle of agricultural application and practice, including a virtuous circle of information collection-information decoding-input optimization-field practice. Among them, information and data are the core part of precision agriculture. First, we must collect crop-related information and the outside world that affects crop growth Information, and then analyze and interpret the information through a series of software application technologies, and present it to agricultural related personnel, including growers or agricultural technical service personnel, in the way of website or mobile app to guide agricultural field practical activities to achieve precision Planting, precision irrigation, precision spraying and other purposes to obtain the highest yield and maximum economic benefits.
What is the difference between the agriculturally developed countries such as the United States and Israel and the developing agricultural countries such as China?
1. United States: Advanced information-based precision agriculture.
The United States is the first country in the world to propose and practice precision agriculture, and it also represents the advanced level of development in this field. There are more than 2 million farms in the United States, 60% -70% of which use precision agricultural technology. From the perspective of agriculture, precision agriculture is mainly used in soybeans, wheat, corn, and some cash crops in the Midwest.
The United States is the first country in the world to study and apply precision agricultural technology. In the mid-1990s, the United States conducted research in agricultural engineering fields such as soil structure density sensing technology, soil conductivity technology, and electromagnetic induction technology. These technologies are now It has been successively used in agricultural production , and has substantially promoted farming technologies such as soil element determination, crop yield monitoring, and response to fertilization variables.
The core of the U.S. precision agriculture development model is the technical level. It combines modern information technology, agricultural technology, and engineering technology to organically reflect the time and space differences required by precision agriculture. Based on this, through the Farmland Geographic Information System The geographic information provided determines the best crop production model, and it is decided to use satellite positioning, intelligent machinery, intelligent fertilization, irrigation, spraying pesticides, etc. to optimize the various agricultural inputs to the maximum extent while protecting the agricultural ecology based on the differences of different crops. Environment and land resources.
In the United States, precision agriculture is not pursuing high yields in the intensive era. The interaction of elements, the result of the interaction determines the benefit. Its benefits are mainly reflected in two aspects, one is to improve the yield and quality of crops by reducing inputs, and the other is to protect the ecological environment and reduce environmental pollution caused by the abuse of chemical substances in agricultural cultivation. In the past two years, American agricultural companies have aimed at the application of "big data" in agricultural management.
2. Israel: Developed greenhouse technology and water-saving irrigation.
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Prior to the 1970s, Israel's agricultural products were heavily imported. After that, Israel adjusted its crop planting structure in accordance with its natural resource conditions, reduced the cultivation of food crops that required high land resources, and actively developed greenhouse technologies. Planting flowers, vegetables and fruits with high output value has greatly improved their agricultural production. Israel's greenhouse technology has been fully intelligent and automated since the 1970s. A greenhouse is about 4,000 square meters. From planting to harvesting, the entire process is computer-controlled. Basically, no manpower is needed, and drip irrigation technology is introduced into the greenhouse system. The yield of crops such as flowers and vegetables was further increased.
In most parts of Israel, drought and rain, land infertility, and improving the utilization of water resources are the biggest problems for Israel to solve agricultural development. Therefore, research on water-saving technologies has always been the most significant subject in Israeli agricultural science. Since the middle of the 20th century, the Israeli government has carried out large-scale water conservancy construction, introduced northern water sources to the depth of the desert, connected groundwater extraction into a national network, and actively developed water-saving irrigation technology on this basis. Drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation are the main forms of Israel's water-saving irrigation technology. Today, it is the seventh-generation technology and is widely used in greenhouses, deserts, and green belts. Because of its national groundwater network, a Water irrigation facilities are relatively easy.
Israel attaches great importance to the development and change of crop breeding technology. According to the market demand, it continues to develop high-efficiency pollution-free and pest-resistant crop seeds. New varieties developed using bioengineering technology can reduce dependence on pesticides and fertilizers, and ensure that they can be in a natural state Grow, its fine varieties development technology is at the forefront of the world. While Israel is developing water-saving irrigation technology, it has also developed integrated water-fertilizer technology. Irrigation and fertilization are carried out simultaneously. This precise technology is based on monitoring soil quality and crop growth processes. Unification of balanced fertilization.
3. China: On the eve of the outbreak of demand space.
As early as the 1990s, China began to study the application of precision agriculture, and has implemented large-scale applications in 13 places including Beijing, Shanghai, Xinjiang, and Heilongjiang.
Taking the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps as an example, it began to propose precision irrigation, fertilization, seeding, harvesting, and environmental dynamic monitoring in 1999. By 2003, a relatively perfect precision agricultural technology system had been basically formed, and it was obtained in the large-scale application of cotton production. Great economic, social and ecological benefits: the average yield is 122 kg, an increase of 17%; the cotton field with semi-precise seeding has been reduced from the original 6 kg to 4 kg; the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer can be increased by 7% to 8% The utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer can be increased by 3% to 5%; the area of cotton managed by a single employee is increased from 2025 acres to 100 to 150 acres, and the labor productivity is 5-7 times the original.
In recent years, the Ministry of Agriculture of China has also launched 116 agricultural IoT application models, aiming to use the Internet of Things as a fundamental measure to implement the "Internet + Modern Agriculture" action, accelerate the promotion and application, and make full use of its water and medicine savings. , Fertilizer, labor, etc., improve land output rate, resource utilization rate and labor productivity, and promote the transformation of agricultural production and marketing to intelligent, precise and networked.
Large- scale land transfer in China is steadily advancing. According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture, as of the end of 2014, the country's land transfer area reached 403 million mu, an increase of 18.3% over 2013. The transfer area accounted for 30.4% of the household contracted farmland area. It is estimated that 2015 The area of circulation will reach 500 million mu. According to North American agricultural development history and experience, in the process of agricultural scale and intensification, the demand for precision agriculture will continue to grow. After more than 10 years of cultivation, the Chinese market is already on the eve of the explosion of demand space.
February 28, 2018
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd