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Water is a necessary condition for the growth of all things. The demand for water during the growth of crops is quite large. Irrigation is the main source of ground water and groundwater for crops. Water-saving irrigation has also become the key to the development of agricultural technology.
1. What are the water-saving methods for crop irrigation ?
1. The field canal can be converted to an anti-seepage canal for water irrigation, which can save water by 20%. The promotion of wide ridges to narrow ridges, long ridges to short ridges, long ditches to short ditches, to reduce the amount of irrigation in the field, and to increase the effective utilization of irrigation is an effective method for water-saving irrigation.
2. Pipe irrigation uses low-pressure pipelines (buried underground or laying on the ground) to directly deliver irrigation water to the field. Most commonly used water delivery pipes are hard plastic pipes or soft plastic pipes. This technique has the advantages of less investment, water saving, labor saving, land saving and energy saving. Compared with soil canal irrigation, pipe irrigation can save water by 30% -50%.
3. Micro-irrigation includes micro-spray irrigation, drip irrigation, infiltration irrigation, and microtubular irrigation. It is to pressurize and filter the irrigation water, and irrigate the crop roots adjacent to the roots of the system through pipes and irrigation equipment at all levels. Micro-irrigation is local irrigation, which only wets part of the soil. Suitable for some dense-sown crops. Compared with surface irrigation, micro-irrigation can save 80% to 85% of water. The micro-irrigation is combined with fertilization. The fertilizer is used to apply soluble fertilizer to the root zone of the crop with water to make up for the moisture and nutrients required by the crop in time.
4. Sprinkler irrigation is to pressurize irrigation water and spray water to the irrigated land through a nozzle through a pipe. Sprinkler irrigation is an ideal irrigation method for field crops. Compared with ground water irrigation, spray irrigation can save 5% of water. To 60%. However, the pipelines used for sprinkler irrigation require high pressure, large equipment investment, large energy consumption and high cost, and are suitable for use in high-efficiency economic crops or areas with good economic conditions and high production levels.
5. Irrigation in critical periods Under conditions of scarce water resources, crops should be selected for irrigation that is most sensitive to water and has the greatest impact on yield during their lifetime, such as gramineous crops from the jointing stage to the heading stage and the filling stage to the milk ripening stage, soybean flower bud Differentiation period to full flowering period.
Second, what are the precautions for winter greenhouse watering ?
In the early winter season, the greenhouses have also entered a low-temperature and high-humidity environment. Watering and fertilizing in agricultural management has gradually become a headache for vegetable farmers. The weather is changeable. Once there are problems in the watering link, it is easy to cause multiple problems Therefore, vegetable farmers should pay attention to the following four points when watering.
1. Be careful not to water by day. Many vegetable farmers are accustomed to watering by the day, but watering by the day is very unreasonable, especially after entering winter, watering by the day is the most important cause of root dysplasia and yellowing of plant leaves. The ground temperature is low in winter, and watering by day is often large, which can easily cause the ground temperature to be low for a long time, poor root system development, and easy to cause symptoms such as cracked fruits and cracked stems.
2. Pay attention to maintaining the soil water balance. Too dry or too wet soil can easily affect plant growth, so maintaining a good water balance in the soil is the key.
Watering in winter must be determined according to the soil moisture, because when the soil moisture content is less than 40%, it is not conducive to nutrient absorption, and when the moisture content exceeds 80%, it is easy to cause poor soil permeability and hypoxia. , Causing the roots.
3. Pay attention to the plant growth and environment changes according to the plant growth status, especially observe the leaf angle, flexibility, flatness and the flexibility of the stems to avoid excessive or insufficient watering.
4, when watering depends on the growth environment of the plants, that is, weather and ground temperature. Do not water in rainy and snowy days in winter. Watering is generally carried out on sunny days. Pay attention to ground temperature. Watering is easy to explode at noon on sunny days. Therefore, it is often selected in the morning when the ground temperature is maintained at about 15 ° C. The smaller the temperature difference is, the smaller the impact on the root system will be.
December 6, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd