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Summer temperatures are high and there is sufficient light, which is the solar term with the longest light time per day. In the flood season, rains increase; various crops grow vigorously, and weeds and pests quickly grow and spread. Field management needs to be strengthened, and timely harvesting is required. Seeding and seedling cultivation of autumn crops have also begun. How to manage vegetable cultivation in the hot summer season ?
1. Facility vegetables need fine management:
Various vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumbers, and eggplants grown in greenhouses and greenhouses have reached the fruit harvest period. The plants grow rapidly, the amount of transpiration is large, and the amount of water required is high. Good or bad management is related to yield and quality.
2. Adjust the appropriate growth environment:
(1) Temperature, adjust the greenhouse temperature suitable for crop growth according to different crops and weather conditions. Tomatoes and other thermophilic crops are 23 ° C-30 ° C from the sun in the daytime to 2pm, 26 ° C-23 ° C from 2pm to sunset, and 18 ° C-20 ° C at night; leafy vegetables such as celery are 20 in the daytime. ℃ -25 ℃, night temperature is 10 ℃ -12 ℃. The daytime temperature on a cloudy day should be reduced by 3 ° C-5 ° C. Avoid excessively high or low temperature in the shed, especially the temperature difference between day and night between 10 ℃ -13 ℃.
(2) The humidity of the air is different for the fruits and vegetables that belong to the same temperature. Peppers prefer a humid growth environment. In the sunny noon, water should be sprayed between the rows or a micro-spray spray should be installed to increase air humidity. Tomatoes and eggplants prefer a dry growth environment with a suitable humidity of 45% -60%. Reducing the humidity of the air through measures such as ventilation and dehumidification, and reducing the amount of watering can not only ensure the normal growth of crops, but also prevent the spread of pests and diseases.
(3) Light. Excessive light at noon on sunny days will adversely affect crops, reduce yield and quality, and cause physiological diseases such as buds and sunburn. On a sunny day from 11 am to 3 pm, cover the shading net with a shading rate of 60% -70% on the roof, or spray "Liliang" cooling material to shade and reduce the temperature in the shed.
3. Timely harvesting:
Late harvesting not only affects fruit and plant growth, but also reduces quality. Try to harvest early in the morning on a sunny day. The quality and taste of the product are better than harvesting at other times.
4. Prompt plant finishing to promote multiple results:
(1) Hit the leaves and remove the old, yellow, diseased and side branches of the lower part of the plant to facilitate ventilation and reduce the consumption of nutrients. Generally, tomatoes and cucumbers maintain 12-16 functional leaves per plant; eggplants and peppers maintain 30-40 functional leaves per plant.
(2) Timely tip, the tomato grows to the tip of the scheduled fruit spike, usually 4-6 spikes per plant, leaving 2-3 leaves above the top spike and plucking the tip.
5. Sparse fruit:
Excessive flowers and fruits on tomato and pepper plants are sparsely removed as early as possible, and deformed fruits and each ear are too large and too small. .
6. Scientific watering and fertilization:
Scientific watering should be carried out according to weather, crop growth and soil conditions. Watering with small water is better. Tomatoes and eggplants are usually watered once every 5-8 days; cucumbers and peppers are watered once every 3 days to avoid excessive drought and excessive watering at one time. Generally, the topdressing is stopped 30 days before the seedlings are pulled, and foliar spraying can be used to quickly supplement nutrients.
7. Sowing crops in open field at the right time:
At this time, the wheat has been harvested, and it is the right time to plant vegetables in summer and autumn. Cucumbers for summer and autumn are most suitable for sowing from June 25 to July 3. Autumn beans and cowpeas are also planted in late June. It will be planted in late June and can be harvested 2 months after planting, making up for the autumn vegetable season in August-September. Spinach, coriander, amaranth, agaric, water spinach and other heat-resistant leafy vegetables should be sown in batches and harvested one after another to supply the summer off-season market.
8. Seedling cultivation of autumn crops in open field:
The celery planted in autumn greenhouses and autumn open fields, and the cabbage and cauliflower crops grown in autumn open fields are bred before and after the summer solstice. Generally, greenhouses or small arch sheds are used for seedlings, and high hoeing is made to prevent rain. Celery seeds must be germinated at low temperature. After sowing, it can be soaked for 24 hours and placed in a 50 cm area on the water surface of the machine well to promote germination.
9. Timely harvesting of open field spring vegetables:
Tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, peppers, frame beans, cowpeas, radishes, cauliflowers, and other crops enter the middle and late stages of harvesting, and they must be harvested on a sunny morning. It is also necessary to do watering work according to the weather, soil and plant growth; timely pruning and pruning to remove the lower old leaves, so that the field is ventilated and lightened, and disease occurrence is reduced.
10. Pest control :
Do a good job in controlling diseases such as cucumber downy mildew, eggplant verticillium, tomato late blight, and cabbage nightworm, cotton bollworm, tobacco beetle, aphid and other pests. Pest attracting lights, insect nets and yellow boards are preferred to reduce insect population density. Biological pesticides or low-toxicity and low-residue pesticides are used for prevention and control, and strictly follow the rules for harvesting at safe intervals after application.
11. Hold on to the shallots:
Last year, the autumnal equinox or the green onions grown in February this year, after the early harvest of wheat or spring stubble cabbage, cauliflower and other early-ripening vegetables were harvested, they were planted firmly and rooted before entering the ambush to ensure that they grew green before the frost. It is necessary to apply sufficient organic fertilizer, plough the land, and choose to grow robust onion seedlings, the depth of which is consistent, and water the planting water in time.
12. Dredging the drainage ditch as early as possible to do rainproof maintenance of the greenhouse:
Ditch the field drainage ditch before the rainy season. If there is a blockage, clear it early to ensure that there is no water accumulation or flooding in the field after rainfall. Inspect and repair the leaking parts such as greenhouse walls and roofs to prevent collapse in the rainy season; inspect the storage conditions of grasshoppers and thermal insulation quilts to ensure that no losses are caused by rain leakage.
August 16, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd