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In recent years, with the development of China's agriculture , we can often hear: green agriculture , organic agriculture , ecological agriculture, etc. are the names of agricultural operations, but what are the differences?
Green agriculture is a form of agricultural production and management.
Green agriculture is a broad sense of "big agriculture", which includes: green animal and plant agriculture, white agriculture, blue agriculture, black agriculture, fungal agriculture, facility agriculture , horticultural agriculture, tourism agriculture , environmental protection agriculture, information agriculture, and so on. It is to make full use of advanced science and technology, advanced industrial equipment and advanced management concepts, with the goal of promoting the coordination and unification of agricultural product safety, ecological security, resource security, and improving the comprehensive economic benefits of agriculture, and advocating the standardization of agricultural products as a means to promote the comprehensive human society and economy A coordinated and sustainable agricultural development model. In specific applications, we generally refer to the "three products", namely, pollution-free agricultural products, green food, and organic food, collectively referred to as green agriculture. After joining the WTO, the international market requires high-quality, high-quality, superior varieties of agricultural products and non-toxic, harmless and pollution-free agricultural products. China must follow the path of green agricultural development.
Organic agriculture is a form of agricultural production.
Organic agriculture is in accordance with certain organic agricultural production standards. In the production, genetically engineered organisms and their products are not used. Chemically synthesized pesticides, fertilizers, growth regulators, feed additives and other substances are not used. They follow natural laws and ecological principles. , An agricultural production method that coordinates the balance between the cropping and aquaculture industries and uses a series of sustainable agricultural technologies to maintain a sustainable and stable agricultural production system. To the extent possible, organic agriculture relies on methods such as crop rotation, crop straw, livestock manure, green manure, foreign organic waste, mechanical tillage, minerals containing inorganic nutrients, and biological control methods to maintain soil fertility and ease of farming. Supply crop nutrients to prevent pests and weeds.
Compared with current agriculture, organic agriculture has the following characteristics:
1. It can provide the society with pollution-free, good taste, and safe and environmentally friendly food, which is beneficial to people's health and reduces the incidence of diseases.
The large-scale application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, while greatly increasing the output of agricultural products, will inevitably cause pollution to agricultural products, leaving hidden dangers to human survival and life. Organic agriculture does not use chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides, and other industrial wastes or municipal wastes that may cause pollution. Therefore, its products are very safe to eat and of good quality, which is beneficial to protecting human health.
2. Can reduce environmental pollution and help restore ecological balance
At present, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is very low. Generally, nitrogen fertilizers are only 20-40%, and the adhesion rate of pesticides on crops does not exceed 10-30%, and the rest flows into the environment to cause pollution. For example, a large amount of chemical fertilizers enter rivers and lakes, causing eutrophication of water bodies and affecting fish survival. At the same time when pesticides kill germs and pests, they also increase the resistance of pests and diseases, killing beneficial organisms and some neutral organisms. As a result, the pests are re-emerged, the amount of pesticides is increasing, and the number of applications is increasing , Into a vicious circle. Switching to organic agricultural production can reduce pollution and help restore ecological balance.
3. It is beneficial to improve the international competitiveness of China's agricultural products and increase foreign exchange income
With China's accession to the WTO, the role of tariff regulation on agricultural products in international trade is becoming smaller and smaller, but the production environment, cultivation methods, and internal quality control of agricultural products are becoming more and more important (the so-called non-tariff trade barriers). Products may break down barriers. Organic agricultural products are an internationally recognized high-quality, pollution-free and environmentally friendly product. Therefore, the development of organic agriculture will increase the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products in the international market and increase foreign exchange earnings.
4. Conducive to increasing rural employment, farmers' income, and improving agricultural production
Organic agriculture is a labor-knowledge-intensive industry. It is a systematic project that requires a large amount of labor input, as well as a large amount of knowledge and technology input. Otherwise, especially the problem of pests and diseases is difficult to solve, and a new concept is needed. The prices of organic agricultural foods on the international market are usually 20-50% higher than common products, and some are more than double. Therefore, the development of organic agriculture can increase rural employment, increase farmers' income, improve agricultural production, and promote sustainable rural development.
Ecological agriculture is a system engineering system.
Ecological agriculture is a modern agriculture that is based on the principles of ecology and economics, using modern scientific and technological achievements and modern management methods, and the effective experience of traditional agriculture . It can obtain higher economic, ecological and social benefits. Ecological agriculture is a comprehensive agricultural production system that takes into account resources, environment, efficiency, and benefits established under the guidance of the principles of the ecological economic system. It not only requires the ban on the use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers, protects soil, water and air from chemical pollution, but also focuses on the ecological cycle of agriculture, through the cultivation of improved seeds, farmland rotation, rational planting and cultivation, and the use of natural animal and plant capabilities And the ecological cycle of agricultural land, preventing animal and plant disease epidemics and agricultural land degeneration, and achieving sustainable agricultural development. Eco-agriculture mainly promotes the recycling and multiple reuse of materials in the agricultural ecosystem by improving the fixed rate and utilization rate of solar energy, the conversion rate of bioenergy, and the recycling rate of waste, etc. Input, obtain as much output as possible, and obtain a unified comprehensive effect of production development, energy reuse, ecological environmental protection, economic benefits, etc., so that agricultural production is in a virtuous circle.
Ecological agriculture characteristics:
Ecological agriculture emphasizes giving play to the overall functions of the agricultural ecosystem, starting from large agriculture, and comprehensively planning, adjusting, and optimizing the agricultural structure in accordance with the principles of "integration, coordination, recycling, and regeneration", so that agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, vice, and fishing Comprehensive development of rural and primary, secondary and tertiary industries, and support each other to complement each other and improve comprehensive production capacity.
Eco-agriculture is aimed at the vast areas of China, where the natural conditions, resource bases, and economic and social development levels vary greatly. It fully absorbs the essence of traditional agriculture in China, combines modern science and technology, and uses a variety of ecological models, ecological engineering, and colorful technologies. Types of equipment for agricultural production enable each region to develop strengths and avoid weaknesses, and give full play to regional advantages. All industries are developed in accordance with social needs and local conditions.
Ecological agriculture realizes economic value-added through material circulation and energy multi-level comprehensive utilization and serialized deep processing, implements waste resource utilization, reduces agricultural costs, improves efficiency, creates internal agricultural employment opportunities for a large number of surplus labor in rural areas, and protects farmers' agricultural employment. Motivation.
The development of ecological agriculture can protect and improve the ecological environment, prevent and control pollution, maintain ecological balance, improve the safety of agricultural products, transform the conventional development of agriculture and rural economy into sustainable development, and closely integrate environmental construction with economic development, effectively satisfying people's concerns At the same time as the increasing demand for agricultural products, the stability and sustainability of the ecosystem is improved, and the agricultural development potential is enhanced.
To sum up, ecological agriculture, green agriculture, and organic agriculture all belong to the agricultural category, and they all provide living materials for the development of human society. This is their common point. However, the three "are complementary and indivisible. Ecological agriculture is not only to promote ecological protection in the production process, but also to rely on the effective support of ecology. It is aimed at the agricultural production system; green agriculture is mainly about pollution prevention, that is, the entire production process is The process of pollution-free and pollution-free is aimed at agricultural production and management; organic agriculture is aimed at agricultural production.
The introduction of concepts such as green agriculture and eco-agriculture indicates that human social production has entered a new stage of development from the foundation, changing the mode of economic development, changing the traditional predatory development and development model, moving to a green lifestyle, and coordinating with nature Development has become, and is increasingly becoming, a major feature of fundamental changes in the production and social lifestyle of contemporary human society.
July 28, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd