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Autumn is the last season for fruit trees to grow within one year. It is also the period when apple and apple fruit-based medium and late-maturing varieties mature in succession. It is also a golden period for deep flower bud differentiation and organic nutrient storage. Therefore, grasping the orchard management in this period can not only effectively control the occurrence and spread of diseases and insect pests, improve the fruit yield and quality of the current year, ensure the high yield of fruit farmers, but also enhance the tree vigor and promote flower bud differentiation. The rate, fruit set rate and high yield, stable yield and high quality lay a solid foundation.
First, autumn pruning
That is, pruning from August to November. It mainly regulates the growth potential of the fruit tree, improves the ventilation and light transmission conditions of the orchard, promotes fruit coloring, and improves fruit quality; improves the photosynthetic capacity of the fruit tree, increases the organic nutrient reserve of the tree, promotes flower bud differentiation, and improves the number and quality of flower buds; Body, and enhance the ability of fruit trees to resist wintering.
Young tree pruning
Mainly pull branches and topping. In early to mid-August, for young trees and the early fruiting stage, the angle of the trunk branches is smaller, the branches are pulled to 80 ° ~ 85 °, and the auxiliary cultivation branches are pulled above 90 °. Competitive branches, upright branches and sprouting branches on the cutting branches of the young tree are twisted and turned 180 ° and topping to promote nutrient accumulation. After mid-September, there are no branches that have stopped growing on young trees and primary fruit trees. 3 to 5 cm is removed to promote branch maturity and increase cold resistance.
2. Pruning fruit trees
Mainly sparse branches, topping, pull branches. From mid to late August, for the competitive branches, upright branches, and bored branches on the fruit tree, depending on the size of the space, twisting branches, toppings or thinning, ventilation and light transmission, reducing nutrient consumption, and reducing winter shear. Depending on the size of the slender auxiliary cultivation branches that have been slowly released for many years, they are retracted to the annual rings to enhance the tree vigor. For auxiliary branches that have been released for 2 to 3 years, they should be retracted appropriately or capped at the junction of spring and autumn shoots to control growth and promote flowers. For the overshoot of the fruit stand, turn it 90 ° or retain 10 ~ 12 leaves for cutting to promote fruit development and coloring. In mid-August, shoots are grown for two years, and dead caps are trimmed at the junction of the first and second years to promote flower bud formation; topping of the backbone branches can promote side branches and facilitate crown expansion; for the auxiliary shoots of the auxiliary branches after the topping in summer Topping again to promote its multi-branching, the fruiting branches can be cultivated in advance to form flowering fruits. In September, the opposite branches and the 80-100 cm extension branch on the center trunk are drawn into 70 ° ~ 80 °. The branch should be combined with braids, twists, loops, etc. This measure is especially suitable for short branch varieties. And dwarfing anvil's spindle-shaped pruning.
Second, pest control
In autumn, due to heavy rain and poorly ventilated orchards, pests and diseases are extremely easy to occur. Therefore, it is very important to control pests and diseases in this period. Not only can they kill and control pests and diseases, reduce insect population density and overwintering base, but also reduce the control pressure in Hunchun. The main focus should be on the prevention and control of spider mites, aphids, gold moths, scaphoid caterpillars, red spiders, leaf roller moths, rot disease, anthracnose, ring disease, and early leaf disease.
Fall through the soil
According to the habit of overwintering in the soil around the trunk, pests such as gold moth, scaphoid caterpillar, red spider, leaf curler moth, etc., timely turn the tree tray deeply, and turn in the diseased leaves, residual fruits, weeds and the overwintering pests in the ground. Deep in the soil to eliminate weeds and a large number of sources of diseases and insects in the soil, and reduce the harm of diseases and insects in the orchard in the coming year.
2. Clean Orchard
The diseased insects, fruits, dead leaves, and small dead fruits on the tree must be collected for centralized destruction and deep buried to reduce the first source of infection in the following year.
For spider mites, 1.8% avermectin 3000 times solution, or 5% nisolang 2000 times solution, or 20% mite death net 3000 times solution can be used to control the spider mites. Aphids, fine moths, scaphoid caterpillars, leaf curlers Other leaf-eating insects can choose 1500 times solution of juvenile urea 3 or 1500 ~ 1800 times solution of 20% pyrid mite · monoformam suspension, 52.25% chlorocyanate · 1000-1500 times solution of chlorpyrifos EC, and 1500 times solution of Lesbon And other pesticides canopy spray control; 50% carbendazim 1000 times solution or 43% alkali 4000 times solution, 70% Antaisheng 600 times solution, Betelli 600 can be used for diseases such as anthracnose, ring disease, and early deciduous disease. ~ 800 times solution, Jianlitong 1000 times solution, 50% imported methyl tobbut wettable powder 800 ~ 1000 times solution, 80% Dasheng wettable powder 800 times solution and other fungicides for prevention and control. The above pesticides should be used alternately and alternately to fully improve the efficacy and avoid resistance.
Third, fertilizer and water management
Topdressing under the tree
From mid to late July to late August, the fruit orchard was top-dressed once to increase the single fruit weight, increase the grade fruit rate and yield, enrich the flower buds and tree nutrient accumulation, and improve tree resistance. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are mainly used, and the average application amount per mu is 50-70 kg. The fertilization method uses a multi-point hole fertilization method, and watering is timely after fertilization.
2. Spray fertilizer on the tree
Beginning in early September, late-maturing varieties such as Red Fuji were foliar sprayed with 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or 0.75% calcium nitrate, 0.3% zinc sulfate, 0.25% borax, and 0.3% every 10-15 days. Ammonium molybdate, etc., to promote fruit hypertrophy, fruit coloring, enhance disease resistance of fruit trees, and improve fruit storage. After harvest, 0.5% urea or 1.0% ammonium bicarbonate was sprayed on the foliage to promote flower bud hypertrophy. After the fruit is harvested, spray 200 times urea solution or 200 times potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, spray 2 to 3 times, and spray once every 5 to 7 days.
3. Base fertilizer in autumn
Generally, it is carried out after the fruit is harvested. The amount of fertilization accounts for more than 60% of the annual fertilization. The fertilizer is mainly organic fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizer. The application rate is 2 kg of high-quality rotten organic fertilizer (chicken manure, animal manure, pen manure, etc.) for every 1 kg of fruit produced. The maximum amount of fertilizer per acre for the tree during the fruit period is not less than 5000 kg, and 30 kg of urea and phosphoric acid are added. 20 kg of ammonium and potassium sulfate, timely irrigation after application, so as to absorb nutrients in the root system and improve fertilizer utilization.
The Xinxin Wulian integrated water and fertilizer irrigation system can be adopted, which can effectively guarantee the balance of water and fertilizer.
Fourth, fruit management
1. Fruit removal bag
Bagged fruits are generally removed from the bag 10 to 20 days before harvest. Remove the outer paper bag first, keep the inner red paper bag, and then go to the inner bag 3 to 7 days. Choose to remove the bag on cloudy or cloudy weather. The bag should be removed on a sunny day at 9-12 am and from 3-5 pm. Prevent bag removal at high temperatures to prevent sunburn.
2. Lay reflective film
Generally, the upper part of the canopy has good lighting conditions, and the apples are easy to be fully colored, while the lower part of the canopy has poor lighting conditions, and the fruit is difficult to color, especially in the depressions of the fruit, which affects the appearance quality of the apple. In order to solve this problem, you can start the coloring period of the red variety (20-30 days before harvest, after bagging and removing the bag), and tile the silver reflective film on the tree tray or between the strips, and use the reflected light to promote the full fruit surface. Evenly colored.
3. Picking leaves and turning fruits
For middle-maturing varieties, 10 to 15 days before harvest, and late-maturing varieties for 20 to 30 days before harvesting (bagging fruits before removing the inner bag), the "patch leaves" and distance fruits that cover the fruit surface are first The "shading leaf" in the range of 5 cm is removed, and after 8 to 10 days (the inner bag of the bagged fruit is removed for 4 to 6 days), the "shading leaf" in the range of 6 to 15 cm from the fruit that affects coloring is removed. Leaf picking only cuts off the leaves and keeps the petiole. Generally, the leaf picking amount accounts for about 20% of the total leaf amount. When the positive side of the fruit is fully colored after picking leaves, when it meets the product standard requirements, select cloudy or sunny days before 10 am and after 4 pm to change the position of the branches and the direction of the fruit to turn the negative side of the fruit to the sunny side, so that the fruit is fully exposed to light. Coloring, general fruit transformation can increase the average fruit coloring index by about 20%.
4. Timely and late mining
According to the survey, the middle and late-maturing red varieties of apples have an average weight gain of about 1 gram per day during the 20 to 30 days before maturity, and the content of anthocyanins in the peel increases rapidly. For example, if the harvest is 10 days earlier, the yield is reduced by 10% to 15%, the sugar content and vitamins are reduced by 1/3 to 1/2, and the development of cuticles and waxy layers of the peel is poor. Fading, water loss, and wrinkle problems are very easy to occur during storage. Therefore, in the proper harvest period, the later the harvest, the better the coloring, the better the quality, and the more conducive to the fruit's sugar and color.
V. Disaster Defense
There is a lot of precipitation in autumn, the temperature is high and unstable, there is a lot of strong convection weather, and hail is very easy to occur. Therefore, the majority of fruit farmers should always pay attention to the weather changes, listen to the weather forecast, and take effective measures such as setting up hail prevention nets for defense before hailfall. After the hailstorm, the majority of fruit farmers should quickly take effective measures such as "one spray of medicine, two clear gardens, and three sprays of fertilizer" to carry out self-rescue in production to reduce losses to the greatest degree.
June 26, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd