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Modern agriculture is gradually developing into organic agriculture . Organic agriculture refers to the plantation industry that uses organic fertilizers to meet the nutritional needs of crops, or uses artificial fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock and poultry feed additives completely or basically. Organic feed to meet the nutritional needs of livestock and poultry.
1. Diversify cultivation and establish a balanced ecosystem:
Increasing the diversity of planted crops is a basic principle of organic agricultural pest control, which simulates the natural ecosystem. The single crop provides high concentration of resources and unified ecological conditions, which promotes the rapid development of diseases and insect pests suitable for this environment. Factors can not provide a rich choice of food and breeding and habitats to reduce the number of beneficial insects.
Therefore, diversified cultivation can establish a relatively balanced ecosystem to inhibit the occurrence of pests and diseases. Diversified planting includes two ranges of time and space. In time, it mainly refers to the reasonable selection of rotation, sowing, and harvesting time. In space, it is the compound planting of multiple species and varieties, and the protection of non-crop plants increases.
2. Reasonable rotation to reduce the development of pests and diseases:
Crop rotation is one of the most basic requirements and characteristics of organic cultivation. Crop rotation is required for both soil fertility and pest control. The main principle of crop rotation for pest control is to use the alternation of host crops and non-host crops to cut off those leaving the host crops. Or the food chain of obligate parasites that the hobby host cannot survive for a long time, so that they can die of starvation. The specific rotation method depends on the complementarity of pests and crop nutrition.
3. The number of populations that protect and promote the growth, reproduction and inhibition of natural enemies:
Natural enemies are an important factor in suppressing the population of pests. The types and number of natural enemies will increase after long-term existence of pests in a region. However, due to environmental constraints, natural enemies cannot be developed to a level sufficient to control insect pests. Measures to prevent harm to natural enemies and help natural enemies reproduce can control the occurrence and harm of pests.
Specific ways to protect local natural enemies:
(1) Create a good habitat for natural enemies;
(2) Apply agricultural measures to provide good environmental conditions for natural enemies;
(3) Provide food addiction when necessary.
4. Strengthen soil water and fertilizer management and promote healthy crop growth:
Water and fertilizer management is a very important link in organic agricultural production . Proper water and fertilizer management can prevent physiological diseases of fertilizer deficiency, improve the ability of crops to resist stress, reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases, and reasonable water and fertilizer can improve the shape of the soil and worsen the soil. The living conditions of the pests directly kill the pests. When fertilizing, we must emphasize the use of thoroughly composted compost and manure, which is a requirement in organic agricultural production.
5. Strengthen the management of the entire production process and reduce the occurrence of crop diseases and insect pests:
(1) Seed and seedling selection and treatment. Try to choose disease-resistant and insect-resistant varieties, but should not be genetically modified varieties. Before sowing, sun-seeding and warm-soaking soaking should be carried out. At the same time, the seeds with diseased and insect eggs should be eliminated;
(2) Properly adjust the cultivation system according to the occurrence of crop diseases and insect pests. Avoid the peak period of certain pests and diseases, and synchronize the occurrence of pests and natural enemies and beneficial insects or the climatic conditions of crop growth and the occurrence of adverse pests and diseases simultaneously;
(3) Timely cultivating herbicides. Can worsen the living conditions of pests and directly kill some pests;
(4) Ding Miao Ding Miao. Remove some diseased weakly growing seedlings by thinning;
(5) Plastic trimming. Pruning, fixing flowers, and fixing fruits of some fruit trees, vegetables and fruits can remove some branches and fruits with pests;
(6) Rural hygiene. Improving rural hygiene has a particularly important role in controlling pests and diseases. Clearing buds, flowers, fruits, and dead branches and stubble can play a role in eliminating some pests and diseases.
6. Take appropriate biophysical measures to avoid large-scale occurrence of pests and diseases:
In spite of the above measures, there is still a possibility of large-scale outbreaks of pests and diseases. In this case, some biophysical methods can be adopted for control.
(1) It can release natural enemies and beneficial insects into the system, such as grasshoppers, ladybugs, parasitic bees, spraying of BT preparation of thuringiensis, nuclear polyhedrosis virus, etc.
(2) Some animals can also be used to control pests. For example: rice farming fish, shrimp, crab, stocking ducks, protecting frogs, etc. can achieve better control of rice pests;
(3) The use of insect traits, such as: light, swatches, sweet and sour liquid can also trap some pests;
(4) By setting insect barriers, certain insect control effects can be achieved. For example, fine mesh gauze is being used in some places to prevent the invasion of migratory pests. It can also be bagged, trunk glued, trunk coated white, Digging trenches and other methods to prevent pests from spawning and migrating;
(5) Some pests can be removed with a vacuum cleaner;
(6) Insect pheromones can be used to trap or interfere with male moth mating to reduce pests;
(7) In biological control, methods for inoculating beneficial organisms into the soil can also be used, such as: using Trichoderma citrus to resist pathogens, or coating spores of beneficial microorganisms as seeds.
7. Permitted plant protection substances:
In organic agriculture, the substances allowed in organic food production standards can also be used for prevention and control:
(1) Use of minerals to control diseases and insect pests, such as: sulfur, lime, stone sulfur mixture, Bordeaux liquid, etc .;
(2) Use some plant pesticides, such as rotenone, pyrethrin, lime tree, garlic preparation, wood vinegar, etc .;
(3) Use soda water to prevent powdery mildew and downy mildew;
(4) Biogas slurry or compost extract, soapy water, etc., but must be very careful in the use process, they may affect the growth of beneficial insects and bacteria, and the use of some substances may cause system pollution.
June 16, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd