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The development of the agricultural Internet of Things requires not only the support of modern technology, but also supporting production and service systems. As the basis of the application of agricultural Internet of Things, the production service system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of the application of Agricultural Internet of Things . The US Agricultural Internet of Things started with the following support:
1. Support of IoT production system:
In the initial stage of the development of the agricultural Internet of Things in the United States, the agricultural science and technology promotion system of the United States played an important role in the agricultural Internet of Things information services. The initial stage of the agricultural science and technology promotion system in the United States has the characteristics of "trinity" of scientific research, education, and promotion. The close integration of agricultural science and technology promotion and production demand is conducive to the timely transformation of scientific and technological achievements into real productivity.
In recent years, the US agricultural field has put more demands on information technology and the Internet of Things technology , and relevant governments have increased the promotion of the agricultural Internet of Things. At present, in the American large farms, the Internet of Things technology has achieved an application rate of up to 80%. Due to higher installation and maintenance costs, limited by the scale of production and economic strength, the application of IoT devices in small farms is low. Almost all large and medium-sized farm equipment in the United States can accurately receive satellite remote sensing and telemetry information through the installed global positioning system. This information is used in accurate soil surveys, fertilization, pesticide application, agricultural environmental monitoring , crop yield estimation, and reasonable land. Utilization plays an important role. Nowadays, the United States can already use satellite communication technology to monitor and forecast catastrophic weather and forecast diseases and insect pests, and has formed a hierarchical structure system from the collection, transmission, processing, and release of ecological and environmental information.
There are professional service companies engaged in agricultural big data in the United States. These companies integrate data such as climate, soil, pests and diseases, planting density, yield, and market prices, and provide farmers with decision support through simulation analysis. Farmers only need to spend a part of the funds to hire a professional service company, and regularly upload the coordinates and related information of the farm through the software, and they can receive reminders of various production activities.
2. Network media support:
Network information service is the main informatization method for the promotion of the agricultural Internet of Things in the United States. Farmers can obtain information on production technology, variety resources, management experience, market prices and other information they need at any time through the websites of agricultural extension agencies at all levels.
County-level extension stations have supporting facilities, such as soil, seeds, fertilizers, and pest and disease monitoring instruments, library and reference rooms, training classrooms, conference rooms and other special places, as well as network facilities such as satellite receiving and processing systems. The agricultural department detects the terrain, soil structure, and water content through soil detection hardware, and then transmits the data to the server in real time through a wireless device. The server analyzes the appropriate irrigation demand for the crop based on these data and sends the irrigation information to the network in a timely manner. user. Use satellite systems to provide meteorological information in time to prevent and reduce agricultural production losses caused by meteorological disasters.
Collecting pest and disease information through digital camera equipment, and then submitting to the long-distance analysis system for diagnosis and decision-making, to achieve plant pest control. These measures have greatly saved manpower expenditures and increased agricultural labor productivity.
3. Government support:
In terms of financial input, the US government regularly invests sufficient funds into the Agricultural and Rural Science and Technology Information Center to provide major sources of funding for various non-profit rural information resources such as the National Agricultural Database. On the one hand, we will strengthen infrastructure construction such as agricultural information system networks and actively develop basic information resources; on the other hand, we will provide agricultural information funds that account for 10% of the agricultural administrative costs each year, raise funds through multiple channels, and encourage private, business and other organizations to invest To ensure sufficient funds for system operation.
In terms of information services, the government provides appropriate agricultural information to agricultural producers and operators according to the diverse information needs of farmers, so that farmers can obtain effective agricultural information services. The United States has also formed a huge agricultural socialization service system. As an important part of this service system, relevant government agencies participate in the collection and analysis of rural scientific and technological information and scientific research results, all of which are "complete and open" to the public. Sharing policy, all information media can be reproduced for free. This will help farmers, agricultural enterprise operators, and agricultural scientific researchers to obtain the information they need in a timely, convenient, and fair manner.
In terms of agricultural information release, the United States Department of Agriculture and its affiliated agencies are engaged in the collection, analysis, and release of agricultural information. For example, the collection and release of agricultural market information is completed by the News Service under the U.S. Market Information Service. Due to the timely analysis and analysis, the information collected on the same day can be classified and issued through the department website on the same day, thereby ensuring the timeliness of agricultural information release. Sex.
In terms of publicity and promotion, the U.S. government combines traditional promotion methods with modern information methods. It not only plays a role in community activities, home guidance, and lecture training, but also provides farmers with economic and technical consultation and promotion of practical technologies. Communication, blog, Twitter and other carriers vigorously promote the agricultural Internet of Things, and continue to expand the channels for farmers to obtain scientific knowledge and scientific and technological achievements.
4. Support of policies and regulations:
In order to protect intellectual property rights according to law and ensure the validity and authenticity of information, safeguard the rights and interests of information subjects, and actively promote the sharing of information, it is necessary to establish and improve laws and regulations on agricultural informatization and conduct effective supervision. The United States made the earliest provisions on agricultural technology information services in the Agricultural Law of 1848. The Hatch Agricultural Test Station Act passed by the Congress in 1887 and the Smith-Liver Cooperative Extension Act passed in 1914 have gradually established and perfected the "Trinity" agricultural scientific research, education, and extension system in the United States.
On February 7, 2014, US President Barack Obama signed into force the Food, Farm, and Employment Act, which pays more attention to general service support projects, including environmental protection, rural development, scientific research and education, agricultural research, and technology promotion.
In recent years, the United States has actively promoted corporate reorganization in the field of information technology, ensured its monopoly position in the field of information technology, and carried out strategic deployment of information technology at a national level. On the one hand, the control of the next-generation Internet root server will be strengthened to consolidate its international information dominance. On the other hand, the United States actively promotes the EPC standard system globally, and strives to lead the development of the global Internet of Things .
And these are the places that China needs to learn from at the beginning of developing the agricultural Internet of Things at this stage. Only by learning advanced experience and technology can we make China's development of smart agriculture less detours, and make China's modern agricultural Internet of Things faster and better among the forefront of international smart agriculture.
March 3, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd