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The breeding industry has always been a key support target for our country. For our country, 2017 is a key year for the livestock and poultry breeding industry to become large-scale and intelligent under the leadership of the Internet of Things . As we all know, for chicken breeding, the breeding environment It appears to be particularly important, not only related to the growth and production of the flock, but also to the health of the flock and the performance of the flock's production performance, thereby affecting the quality of poultry products. Therefore, in order to create a good growth environment for the flock, and give full play to the production potential of the flock, to maintain the healthy production of the flock and improve the quality of production, only the environment in the chicken house must be improved!
What are the factors that affect the environment in the house? These include temperature, humidity, light, ventilation and microorganisms.
Temperature is an important factor in the control of the environment of the house . In the early stage of brooding, the importance of heat preservation is particularly important. Poultry has different temperature requirements at different feeding stages. The suitable temperature is generally divided into: the temperature of chicks should be controlled between 34 ~ 36 ℃ in the early stage, and then reduced by 2 ~ 3 ℃ every week according to the season; young chicken and adult chicken The comfortable ambient temperature is 18 ~ 24 ℃. Within this range, the basal metabolism of the chicken is low and the feed utilization rate is high.
Poultry does not have sweat glands, and the temperature of the chicken body increases with the increase of the ambient temperature. At this time, the body temperature can only be adjusted by breathing, increasing evaporation and heat dissipation, and drinking a lot of water to reduce its feed intake. At the same time, a series of Physiological stress response results in decreased production performance and low resistance, leading to disease; when the ambient temperature exceeds 39 ° C, it can cause heat stroke death. When the ambient temperature is low, especially in winter, cold is the main reason for the decline in production performance and disease resistance.
Humidity is another important factor in the control of the environment of the chicken house. In the first 10 days before brooding, the humidity must be 60% ~ 65% to facilitate the absorption of yolk. In the late hatching period, the humidity in the hatcher is relatively high. After the chicks are stressed, the relative humidity in the house three days before brooding must be 70%. 65% at 4-7 days, 60% at 8-14 days, and 50-60% after 15 days. If the relative humidity in the first week is less than 50%, the chicks will become dehydrated, and the weekend weight will not reach 4 times the weight at the time of entering, and the uniformity will be poor, which will affect future production performance. When the temperature is moderate and the humidity is too low, the chicken's body temperature is low and it is easy to pile up. This will increase the water loss in the chicken body, the yolk absorption will be poor, the fluff will be dry, the toes will be dry, and the chicken will be vulnerable to dust and suffer from respiratory diseases. When the temperature is low and high, the house is cold and wet, and the chickens are susceptible to colds and gastrointestinal diseases. At high temperature and high humidity, the heat in the chick body is not easy to emit, suffocation, decreased appetite, slow growth, decreased resistance, and cause heat stress. During the brooding period, many breeders ignore the humidity in the house, and the problem of low humidity is common. Especially in the spring and autumn, when the climate is dry, it is necessary to prevent the humidity in the house from affecting the chicks.
Light is a necessary condition for breeding in modern layers. The length of light time and the intensity of light intensity play a crucial role in achieving the growth and development of chicks, the survival rate and the performance of laying hens. Appropriate light time and light intensity can make poultry exert its good performance.
Effects of light on poultry The brooding period is to extend the light time and increase the feed intake of the chicks to promote the growth and development of the chicks. The light is 24 hours before the first two days, 23 hours after 3 days, and natural during the day after the 14th day Light should be properly shaded if necessary, and low light should be maintained at night. If the body weight can reach the standard in the first week, intermittent light can be used at 8 to 21 days of age. After the second week, low light chickens are recommended. Without affecting feed intake and drinking water, low light can reduce chicken movement, fully increase feed utilization, limit physical energy consumption, and promote weight gain.
Ventilation is an important factor in environmental control of the house. Ventilation is to exhaust excess moisture and harmful gases and excessive dust in the house, to add fresh air to the house, and to maintain a suitable temperature and humidity through wet curtains, to ensure the air quality of the house, and to help the chickens to maintain good Ventilation and proper genetic potential, ventilation is an effective measure to regulate air quality in the house.
The improper design of the ventilation system in the chicken house, or improper operation will cause the air in the chicken house to be turbid, and harmful substances will be gathered, which will reduce the air quality of the chicken house and directly threaten the chicken's health. Harmful gases in the hen house include ammonia produced by the decomposition of feces and urine, H2S gas and carbon dioxide produced by chicken breathing, methane produced by litter fermentation, and carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion of heating fuel. Good air standards in the chicken house are: oxygen> 19.6%, carbon dioxide <0.3%, H2S <10PPM, ammonia <10PPM, carbon monoxide <10PPM, dust <3.4 mg / m3. If it exceeds this standard, it will have great side effects on the chickens, resulting in low oxygen content in the chicken house, resulting in hypoxia, and the chickens will suffer from chronic hypoxia, decreased appetite, decreased production levels, and weakened resistance to disease. Infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis, are susceptible to infection.
Poor ventilation can also cause dust to increase and pathogenic microorganisms attach to the dust particles to move, reducing the body's immunity and being susceptible to diseases such as the respiratory tract.
Pathogenic microorganisms are the culprits of infectious diseases, but they are not the only ones in the environment that can cause chickens to get sick. Therefore, if the microorganisms in the environment can be controlled, the incidence of infectious diseases can be reduced.
Various methods of disinfection are effective ways to control pathogenic microorganisms in the environment. In the breeding process of chicken flocks, disinfection of chickens with efficient and broad-spectrum non-irritating disinfectants can often reduce the number of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment of the chicken house. The hen house and the equipment for raising chickens should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after a batch of chickens is raised. The detection of the number of microorganisms is a specific direct inspection of the disinfection effect.
As the livestock and poultry breeding industry develops to a large-scale and intensive development, the feeding amount of each chicken house is increasing, which brings difficulties to the control of the environment in the chicken house. Therefore, temperature, humidity, light intensity, ammonia Accurate monitoring of gas, carbon dioxide, H2S and microorganisms is imperative. Real-time monitoring of the lighting environment and harmful gas content of poultry houses, and based on the monitoring results, analyze whether it is necessary to adjust the light and ventilation in time to eliminate harmful effects in the chicken house. Gas, dust, microorganisms. Therefore, real-time monitoring of the chicken house environment can reliably provide an important basis for the regulation of the chicken house environment, and has important guiding significance for production.
The emergence of the Xinxin IoT intelligent livestock breeding IoT platform not only solves the problems of environmental control, but also helps farmers effectively solve various difficult problems in the current industry, and lays a solid foundation for refined breeding. The foundation has created conditions for high yield, high quality, high efficiency, ecology and safety of breeding, helping users improve efficiency, reduce costs and increase revenue. Xinxin IoT intelligent livestock breeding IoT platform provides you with professional IoT breeding solutions !
February 22, 2017
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd