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At present, many pig farms only pay attention to the supply of water and ignore the quality of water. The lack of effective protection and disinfection in the process of water withdrawal and water supply makes water-borne diseases, especially diarrheal diseases difficult to control. It is understood that at present, the water used for raising pigs in rural and suburban areas mainly comes from untreated accumulated rainwater and polluted and untreated groundwater. If such drinking water is used for large-scale pig raising, it will definitely endanger the health of pigs, and even endanger the breeding and management personnel Health. Therefore, regular inspection and continuous disinfection of drinking water in large-scale pig farms should be given great attention.
In order to regulate the safety standards of water used in farms, the Chinese government has also issued a series of standards on drinking water for livestock and poultry in recent years. The agricultural industry standard of the People's Republic of China, " Green Agriculture Animal Health Guidelines (NY / T473-2001)" stipulates that the drinking water quality of livestock and poultry should meet the requirements of the "Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water (GB5749-85)" promulgated by China, and "Pollution-free food livestock and poultry drinking water quality (NY5027)" also clearly specifies the quality of drinking water for livestock and poultry. In addition to specific provisions on various physical and chemical indicators and detection methods in drinking water, The standards of microorganisms are: the total number of bacteria <100 / ml; the total E. coli group <3 / L.
Water quality problems are mainly related to microbial pollution and the content of toxic substances nitrite. Pathogens in the water have a significant impact on the health of the herd. Among pig diseases, water-borne diseases include three types of viral diseases, bacterial diseases, and parasitic diseases. Viral diseases include swine fever, foot and mouth disease, infectious gastroenteritis, epidemic diarrhea, rotavirus disease, PRRS, PR, and reovirus; etc .; bacterial diseases mainly include charcoal blast, Leptospira, E. coli, E.coli, Salmonella, brucella, streptococcus, swine dysentery, Clostridium perfringens type C , Proliferative bowel disease, staphylococcus, etc .; parasites are mainly tapeworms, tubercle worms, coccidia, whipworms, etc. There are more than 20 species of water-borne diseases. These diseases do not all exist in a pig farm at the same time, but multiple water-borne infectious diseases exist in the same pig farm at the same time, and persist in the pig farm for a long time and continue to cause diseases in the pig herd. Nitrate is found in the ground and groundwater. Nitrate can be converted into nitrite, which is toxic. Toxicity does not occur until nitrate is converted to nitrite. The nitrite concentration in water is safe below 100mg / kg, but when the nitrate concentration in the water industry is higher than 100 mg / kg, hemoglobin can be converted into methemoglobin. The methemoglobin in the blood cannot transport sufficient oxygen to the tissue. If the methemoglobin content in the blood is too high, it may cause pigs to die.
In addition, surface and groundwater contain many mineral elements such as iron, sulfur, chlorine, and magnesium. These minerals can form complexes with calcium, magnesium, sodium, etc., and constitute a total soluble matter in water. When the total soluble matter in water exceeds 5 g / L, it will cause pig diarrhea and affect its production performance.
Control of safe water quality in large-scale pig farms:
In order to ensure that the drinking water quality of large-scale pig farms meets hygienic requirements and ensure drinking safety, drinking water must be purified and disinfected. Water purification methods include sedimentation, filtration, disinfection and other special purification treatments. The purpose of precipitation and filtration is mainly to improve the physical properties of water quality, remove suspended matter and some pathogens. Corresponding purification measures can be taken according to the specific conditions of the water source water quality. Generally speaking, turbid ground water requires sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection; cleaner groundwater only needs to be disinfected; if it is polluted by special harmful substances, corresponding purification measures need to be taken.
Surface water often contains suspended matter and colloidal substances such as sand, which makes the water more turbid. When the water flow speed slows down or stops, the larger suspended matter in the water can gradually sink due to the effect of gravity, so that the water is initially clarified. However, the small colloidal particles suspended in water are mostly negatively charged. The colloidal particles repel each other and cannot aggregate into larger particles, so they can be suspended for a long time without sedimentation. At this time, a certain coagulant must be added, such as alum can form a positively charged gel with the bicarbonate in water. It attracts the original negatively charged colloidal particles in the water, aggregates to form larger flocs, and precipitates. This floc has a large surface area and adsorption force, and can adsorb some uncharged suspended particles and pathogens to settle together. Therefore, the physical properties of water are greatly improved, and pathogenic microorganisms are reduced.
Filtration is the purification of drinking water by passing water through the filter. The principle of filtering purified water is the barrier effect. Particles of suspended matter in water that are larger than the pores of the filter material cannot be retained through the filter layer. The other is precipitation and adsorption. Objects in the water that have a smaller gap than the sand particles, such as bacteria and colloidal particles, cannot be blocked by the filter layer, but they can settle on the surface of the filter material when it passes through the filter layer. Glia biofilms can be formed by the growth of certain non-pathogenic bacteria. This membrane has an adsorption force, which can adsorb minute particles and pathogens in water. It can remove more than 80% of bacteria and about 99% of suspended matter, schistosomiasis cercariae and amoeba cysts by filtering.
In order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases and ensure the safety of water for large-scale pigs, the water needs to be disinfected: common disinfection methods include physical disinfection and chemical disinfection. Physical disinfection methods include boiling disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection, and ultrasonic disinfection. Due to the centralized water supply in the pig industry , and because of the large amount of water used in production, this type of technology cannot be used for disinfection of pig farm water supply. Therefore, more chemical methods are used to disinfect water in pig farms, that is, disinfectants are used to disinfect water. At present, commonly used disinfectants for drinking water are chlorine preparations, iodine preparations and chlorine dioxide. The ideal drinking water disinfectant requires non-toxic, non-irritant, can quickly dissolve in water and release germicidal components, has strong killing power against pathogenic microorganisms in water, has a broad sterilization spectrum, and does not occur with organic or inorganic substances in water. Chemical reactions and the production of harmful and toxic substances are cheap and readily available, easy to store and transport, and easy to use.
The disinfection of water supply for large-scale pig farms needs to measure the volume of the water tower or cistern first, and input the appropriate dose of disinfectant according to the instructions. Because large-scale pigs need continuous water supply, adding disinfectants to the water at one time can only maintain a short period of time. Frequent dosing is very troublesome. To this end, continuous chlorine disinfection can be applied in the storage tank, which can be maintained after one dose. 7-15d effective disinfection of water. The method is to put the disinfectant in a plastic bag or a plastic bucket and put it in an amount of 20 or 30 times that of the disinfectant used to disinfect 1d drinking water, and mix it into a paste. Plastic bags (barrels), 0.2-0.4mm, several small holes. The plastic bag (barrel) is suspended in the water inlet of the water supply system, and the disinfectant is slowly released from the bag under the action of the water flow. Because this method controls the concentration of disinfectant in water completely by the diameter and number of holes in the plastic bag, it should generally be tested at the first use to ensure that the disinfectant in the bag should be completely released within 7-15d. When possible, the residual chlorine in the water needs to be measured, and if necessary, the total number of bacteria in the water towel after disinfection can be measured to determine the disinfection effect.
December 7, 2016
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd