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The carrier of the archives, like all the materials in the world, is in a never-ending movement, and the materials after the movement are constantly changing, such as improper preservation and use methods. With time, the best quality carrier materials It can also be damaged. Therefore, it is very important to do a good job in file protection, especially in the warehouse. Let's talk about the influence and control measures on archive materials from the perspective of temperature and humidity of archives.
I. Influence of temperature and humidity in archives on archives
(I) Impact of high temperature and high humidity environment on archive materials:
1. The high temperature and humidity of the warehouse will cause some poorly heat-resistant handwritings in some archival paper materials to cause oil seepage, diffusion, and fading, which will cause the handwriting to be ambiguous, and will accelerate the damage to the cellulose from harmful chemical residues in the paper. Hydrolyzing cellulose results in a decrease in paper strength and durability.
2. High temperature is beneficial to the growth and reproduction of archived pests. The optimum temperature for insect growth and development is 22-32 ° C, and the relative humidity is mostly 70-90%. High humidity can maintain the proper water content in the insect body to promote its metabolism and accelerate the development of the insect body. At the appropriate temperature, the greater the humidity, the more insects spawn and the faster they reproduce. There are more than 10 species of insects that endanger the archives. These insects use paper glue and other food to erode the archives and cause holes, and the archives that are severely eaten by them cannot be rescued.
3. The high temperature and humidity of the warehouse will also promote the destruction of archive materials by harmful factors such as harmful gases and dust in the air. Can accelerate the destruction of archival materials by various harmful chemicals.
(B) the impact of low humidity on archival materials:
Too low humidity in the warehouse will cause excessive evaporation of moisture in the archives paper, leading to the destruction of the internal structure of the fiber, making the paper hard and brittle, and reducing the mechanical strength.
(3) The impact of excessive fluctuations in temperature and humidity on the archival materials:
Excessive and rapid fluctuations in temperature and humidity in the warehouse will cause internal stress due to uneven expansion and contraction of the archival material, which will easily reduce its strength and deform, and may destroy the combination of some handwritings and paper, and the combination of film emulsion and film base .
Therefore, the high temperature and high humidity, high temperature and low humidity, low temperature and low humidity, and high and low temperature and humidity of the archives storehouse are unfavorable for the preservation of archive materials. It is necessary to strengthen the control and adjustment of the temperature and humidity of the archives storehouse to make it in a suitable state. Conducive to long-term preservation of archives.
Based on the above points, the National Archives issued the Interim Provisions on the Management of Archives' Temperature and Humidity in 1985, which defined the temperature and humidity ranges of the warehouses that are conducive to long-term preservation of the archives. %; Within the specified range, the day and night fluctuation ranges of temperature and humidity are defined as ± 2 ° C and ± 5% respectively (for relative humidity).
Adjustment and control measures of temperature and humidity in archives
A general rule of temperature and humidity changes in the warehouse is basically consistent with the trend of temperature and humidity changes outside the warehouse. But because of the different sealing conditions in different warehouses, the speed of temperature and humidity changes is different. The better the sealing conditions, the slower the rate of change. Due to the different environment and warehouse conditions in each area and unit, the temperature and humidity control and adjustment of the warehouse are different, but there are roughly the following measures.
Sealing is one of the measures to prevent and reduce the influence of unsuitable temperature and humidity outside the storehouse on the inside of the storehouse, and to maintain a relatively stable temperature condition in the storehouse. The focus of the seal is on the doors and windows of the warehouse. It requires a high degree of sealing when the doors and windows to be opened are closed and can be opened when ventilation is required. Many measures are taken on such doors and windows, such as inlaying rubber strips, velvet strips and other fillers in the door and window frames; putty, double Floor windows; installing light-proof curtains, etc. can play a relatively tight role. However, the seal has only the effect of controlling the temperature of the storeroom, but not the effect of regulation. Sealing is relative. When there is unsuitable temperature and humidity, it must be adjusted. Therefore, only one measure of sealing cannot achieve the purpose of making the temperature and humidity of the warehouse suitable, and it must be combined with other measures.
Ventilation is the use of the law of air flow and the use of thermal pressure differences to exchange air inside and outside the storehouse in a planned way to achieve the purpose of regulating the temperature and humidity in the storehouse. This method is a simple and effective method to adjust the temperature and humidity in the library. Cooling, damp-proofing and heating in the warehouse can all achieve certain effects. However, the ventilation of the warehouse is not to open the doors and windows casually to allow the air inside and outside the warehouse to exchange freely, but to master the law of natural air flow inside and outside the warehouse, and to compare the actual conditions and trends of temperature and humidity inside and outside the warehouse according to the requirements of the materials made of the archives. With reference to the wind, the wind direction should be carried out in a planned way, otherwise the ventilation is not suitable and it will cause bad consequences.
Ventilation, especially natural ventilation, must strictly adhere to the following four principles of ventilation and humidity reduction:
1. Ventilation can be provided when the outside temperature and humidity are lower than the inside of the storehouse; otherwise, it cannot be ventilated;
2. When the outside temperature is lower than the inside of the storehouse, when the relative humidity inside and outside the storehouse is the same, ventilation can be provided, otherwise it cannot;
3. When the relative humidity outside the storehouse is lower than inside the storehouse and the temperature inside the storehouse is the same, ventilation can be provided;
4. When the temperature and humidity conditions inside and outside the warehouse are not the same as the above three principles and not the opposite, calculations are required to determine whether ventilation is possible. It is to convert the relative humidity outside the storehouse to the relative humidity at the temperature inside the storehouse. If it is lower than the relative humidity inside the storehouse, you can ventilate it; otherwise, you cannot ventilate it.
(Three) temperature control
Under the circumstance that it is difficult to achieve the ideal temperature control effect of the warehouse by airtightness and ventilation, many archive warehouses have adopted some temperature control measures according to their actual conditions, such as installing air heating equipment, fans or air conditioners. When economic conditions allow, air conditioning is an ideal method of temperature control, which can make the temperature in the warehouse uniform, safe and effective. In addition, greening the environment is also an important measure for temperature control. Green vegetation can protect against wind, clean the air, regulate humidity, and absorb heat.
The dehumidification of the warehouse is an important measure to control the temperature and humidity of the warehouse. In the hot and humid seasons of spring and summer, the relative humidity of the wettest months in some areas will be about 80-90%, which has a greater impact on the humidity in the warehouse. In the past, archival departments generally used damp absorbents such as charcoal, quicklime, and anhydrous calcium chloride in warehouses for static moisture absorption and dehumidification. With the improvement of the conditions, especially the widespread application of small dehumidifiers, many archives and rooms are now mainly dehumidifiers, making the dehumidification effect of the warehouse very ideal. However, the application of the dehumidifier must be scientific and reasonable. Pay attention to the relationship between the dehumidification function of the dehumidifier and the area of the warehouse to ensure the effect of dehumidification. If it is rainy in spring and autumn, the working time of the dehumidifier should be prolonged. At the same time, pay attention to the relationship between dehumidification and sealing, and ensure that dehumidification is performed under sealed conditions, otherwise it is difficult to achieve the effect of dehumidification.
When the humidity of the archive warehouse is low, the warehouse needs to be humidified. There are two main ways of humidification: natural evaporation humidification and humidifier humidification. Natural evaporation humidification is an economical, simple and easy way to place open water containers, floor sprinklers, and wet cloth strips in the warehouse. A ventilator can also be used to help the moisture evaporate quickly into the air. Humidification with a humidifier is to purchase equipment with a humidifying effect. There are many types of equipment in the market, each with its own characteristics, and can be purchased according to the situation of the warehouse.
Humidification measures are mainly adopted in response to the dry climate and low humidity in the northwest and northeast of China.
(6) Temperature and humidity inspection and linkage control system for archives
In recent years, in response to the requirements of temperature and humidity monitoring and regulation of archives and warehouses , an intelligent and automated "architecture warehouse temperature and humidity inspection and linkage control system" has emerged on the market. This type of system installs temperature and humidity probes in the warehouse, and is connected to the temperature and humidity control equipment. The computer system is used to monitor the temperature and humidity of the warehouse in real time. When the temperature and humidity exceed a certain range, the temperature and humidity control equipment is started or closed to achieve real-time adjustment of the warehouse Temperature and humidity function, saving human resources. In addition, the system can also automatically detect and record warehouse temperature and humidity data, display and print data tables and data curves for a fixed period of time, in order to use the data for long-term storage and analysis. The development and use of this type of system marks a new level of temperature and humidity monitoring in the warehouse . However, such systems have higher purchase and operating costs, and are now mainly used for temperature and humidity monitoring of larger-scale archives.
In addition, because the temperature and humidity change too fast will also have an adverse effect on the warehouse files, so in the process of adjusting and controlling the temperature and humidity of the warehouse, you should also pay attention to the speed of temperature and humidity changes, pay attention to the start-up or ventilation time in different seasons and conditions. , Not only to ensure the adjustment effect, but also can not make the temperature and humidity in the warehouse change too much, which brings new problems to the storage of files.
In summary, the temperature and humidity regulation of archives and warehouses is a long-term task. The standards of temperature and humidity in archives and warehouses are relative, not the same. The adjustment and control measures adopted will also occur with the continuous development of China's economy and technology. Changes, archivists must not only pay attention to learning related theoretical knowledge and absorb relevant scientific results, but also have rich practical experience, and adjust and control according to the actual situation, and actively explore the temperature and humidity adjustment for their own warehouses. Control method of work.
December 2, 2016
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd