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Recently, the State Council Information Office held a press conference to interpret and answer reporters' questions on the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Maintaining Stable and Long-lasting Land Contracting Relations" (referred to as "Opinions") issued by Xinhua News Agency authorized by the Central Government.
To deepen rural reform, the main line is still to properly handle the relationship between farmers and land. The land relationship is the basic production relationship in the countryside, and the basic management system with the land system as the core is the cornerstone of the Party's policy in the countryside.
Han Changfu, director of the Central Agricultural Office and Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs , pointed out that the "Opinions" is of great significance and far-reaching impact, and is an important system design that "controls the current and the long-term." Clarifying the basic direction of consolidating and improving the family contracting management system and the basic principles of maintaining long-term stability of land contracting relations is a major announcement on rural land policies.
Han Changfu emphasized that long-term stability of land contractual relations, adequate protection of farmers 'land contracting rights, and improvement of the rural land contracting management system are not only conducive to enhancing farmers' confidence in the development of production, giving them a "center of mind", but also promoting rural land circulation. The development of various forms of moderate-scale operations will also help ensure long-term stability in the rural areas.
In the past 40 years, China has had two major innovations in the land system. One was the beginning of the reform and opening up, and the family joint responsibility system was implemented to realize the "separation of two rights" of collective land ownership and family contract management rights; the second was the party After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the "three separate rights " of collective land ownership, farmer contracting rights, and land management rights was implemented.
Han Changfu pointed out that the two innovations are the insistence on collective land ownership and household contracted management, which are continuous in line with the times and stable for a long time. In the new era, the CPC Central Committee's proposal to keep the land contract relationship stable and unchanged for a long time is an inheritance and development of the Party's rural land policy.
Han Changfu concluded that the "Opinions" can be summarized as "two unchanged and one stable", which clarifies the long-term unchanged policy connotation:
Maintaining the basic system of collective land ownership and family contract management for a long time, ensuring that farmers collectively effectively exercise land ownership, and collective members enjoy equal rights to land contracting, this is a "permanent change";
The basic right of farmers to contract collective land in accordance with the law has been maintained for a long time, and family business has a basic status in agricultural production and management; members of rural collective economic organizations have the right to contract collective land in accordance with the law. No organization or individual can deprive or illegally restrict this. A "forever".
Keep the contracted land of farmers stable. Farmers' families are the legal subjects of land contracting operations. The contractor and other economic organizations or individuals must not adjust their contracted land illegally. After the second round of land contract expires, the principle of postponing the contract shall be adhered to, and the contracted land shall not be disrupted and re-divided to ensure that the original contracted land of the vast majority of farmers continues to be stable. The Nineteenth National Congress of the People's Republic of China proposed that after the second round of land contract expires, it will be extended for another 30 years. The rural land contract relationship has remained stable for up to 75 years from the first round of contracting. This is a major measure to implement "permanent change". Concrete manifestation.
Han Changfu emphasized that in the next step, we should adhere to the guidance of the socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era, implement the requirements of the Opinions, maintain stable and permanent land contractual relations, stabilize the basic management system, respect the peasant's dominant position, and make sure Rights registration and issuance and a new round of contract extension work provide institutional guarantee for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies and the acceleration of agricultural and rural modernization.
Attachment: Ask questions at the press conference
The reporter asked: The second round of contract is about to expire soon, and farmers are very concerned about the issue of delayed contract. How can we organize and implement it to ensure that the "long-lasting" policy is implemented?
Indeed, it will be extended for another 30 years after the expiry of the second round of contracting. After the announcement of major policies, all aspects are very concerned, especially farmers' friends. Because land is a great wealth of farmers, I can introduce some contracting situations here. Everyone knows that we are generally contracting in rural areas. Now there are more than 1.5 billion mu of rural contracted land, involving nearly 200 million farmers. So how to delay the land contract is of vital interest to them. Here is a set of data. The second round of contracting started in 1993 and was basically completed in 1999. If calculated based on the 30-year contract period, by 2023, the second round of contracting will begin to expire in large numbers, and contract extension will begin. The peak period of delays will be concentrated from 2026 to 2028. In fact, this year and next year, a small number of villages have already begun to do this work. Because the situation in China is not exactly the same, the start time of contracting in each place is not exactly the same and uniform.
How to extend the contract after the contract expires? The policy of the Party Central Committee is consistent. This Opinion clearly stipulates that: First, adhere to the principle of contract extension, which is a principle. Contracted land must not be disrupted and re-divided. It is necessary to ensure that the majority of farmers' original contracted land continues to remain stable. Most peasant households originally contracted which land or which land, so contract extension is the principle. Second, the starting point of the extension contract is calculated from the expiration of the second round of land contract in each place. The contract period is still 30 years. Specific to a place, especially to a county, starts from the expiration of the second round of contracting.
Of course, there are still many issues to be explored in how to organize and implement, and some issues must be resolved through exploration. There are mainly three areas of work. From the present, the first is to issue certificates to farmers. Since 2014, we have started to promote the registration and certification of the contracted land. After six years of concentrated efforts, this work has been basically completed. At present, the certificate issuance rate is over 94%. The next step is to continue to do a good job of cleaning up and make every effort to make sure that the contracted land of the current farmers is clear and further determined.
The second is to improve supporting laws and policies. According to the newly revised "Rural Land Contract Law", this has just been revised and has been implemented. It is necessary to promptly revise and improve the relevant supporting laws and regulations and policies and measures such as the "Measures for the Management of the Transfer of Land Operating Rights." This is because there is a clear legal statement on land contracting and postponement. To further improve supporting policies, this work must be carried out in accordance with law.
The third is to carry out trials of delayed contracts. We are planning to carry out the second round of land extension trials after the expiry of land contract in some counties, mainly the counties that have expired in advance. Now we are organizing the application. Through trials, to explore experience and guide the grassroots to explore specific methods of contract extension. Regarding delayed contracting, before the implementation of large-scale operations, the central government and relevant departments will also issue guidance.
Journalist: In recent years, many farmers have settled in the cities. How should the contracted land of these farmers be disposed of?
Han Changfu: This issue is a topic that everyone cares about and is a hot topic. Not only farmers who enter the city are concerned, but farmers who do not enter the city are also concerned.
With the acceleration of urbanization, a large number of peasants have entered the city. The number of peasants in the country who are currently working in cities and doing business is about 288 million, of which more than 30 million households are working in cities. Therefore, some village houses are idle, and there is a phenomenon of "hollow village". Among them, quite a few settled in the city, but most of them returned to the village during the New Year and the holiday. In general, there are more and more peasant households who settle in the city, and this phenomenon is becoming more and more common.
How to deal with the contracted land of rural farmers? This is related to the vital interests of farmers and to the stability of rural society. In general, we must have sufficient historical patience on the land issue. Don't worry, don't rush to reclaim peasants' contracted land. On the issue of land, we must respect the wishes of the farmers and safeguard their rights and interests. We should give the farmers the right of choice and let them choose, not replace them.
The "Opinions" issued this time clearly stated that at this stage, the withdrawal of land contractual rights should not be used as a condition for farmers to enter and settle in cities. On the one hand, farmers who settle in the city can be guided to transfer or return the contracted land to the collective under the principle of voluntary compensation according to law, provided that they are paid voluntarily. On the other hand, it is also possible to retain the right to contract, transfer management rights, or develop various forms of moderate-scale operations through farm management.
He voluntarily, can return the contracted land to the collective, or transfer his contracting right within the collective members, of course, in accordance with the law. He is unwilling to retain the contracting right and allow him to develop multiple forms of moderate-scale operations through the transfer of management rights or through farm trust. The Opinions also have clear policies for long-term abandonment of farmland and contracted land. The contracting party can take measures to rectify it according to law.
Here I want to emphasize again that whether farmers in cities give up the contracted land should respect the wishes of the farmers. They can demonstrate and guide them, but they cannot force orders. Thank you for your question.
Reporter asked: During the interview, I learned that since the second round of contracting, due to a series of reasons such as population growth and natural disasters, some farmers have landless or landless conditions. Will this issue of the "Opinions" emphasize the maintenance of land contracting relations? Stable and unchanged for a long time, how to protect the rights and interests of these landless and landless farmers?
Han Changfu: What you are talking about is a real problem. Since the second round of contracting, due to changes in the family size of the contracting farmers' households and other reasons, the arable land occupied by some contracting farmers is uneven. This is also an inevitable and objective situation. There were also some peasant households with little or no land. At that time, some peasant households went to work in cities during the second round of contracting, and some offered to give up participating in the second round of contracting. How to protect their land contract rights? It is also a problem that needs to be resolved in order to implement a long-lasting policy. We attach great importance to this issue. According to preliminary surveys and statistics conducted in various places, generally these farmers account for 0.94% of the total farmers, less than 1%.
The Opinions clearly stipulate that after the second round of contract expires, the principle of contract extension should be adhered to, and the contracted land should not be disrupted and re-divided. The existing contracted land will be continued to be contracted by farmers after the second round of contract expires. In special situations such as natural disaster damage, appropriate adjustments can be made among individual farmers in accordance with the principles of large stability and small adjustments, and according to legal procedures, but they must be strictly controlled in accordance with laws, regulations and regulations. In general, the problem of landless or landless farmers is not solved by disrupting and re-dividing the land. In some cases, appropriate adjustments can be made based on the principle of "large stability and small adjustments", but only in individual farmers. In the meantime, we must also proceed according to law and regulations.
How did you consider making such a provision? The main consideration is to maintain the stability of contracting relations. The key to agricultural family operation is to have stable expectations. A peasant has long-term stable and autonomous land, so he can have stable operating expectations and long-term management plans, and can safely develop, increase investment, and improve production conditions on the land. Improve the quality of land. He cultivated the land and protected it. If the contracted land is constantly transferred, a farmer will plant this land this year and next year, it will be difficult to cherish the land, maintain the land, and even predatory land use, so that it will be difficult for agriculture to maintain sustainable and stable development. This is the case during the contract period, and the same is true when the contract is extended after the contract expires. It is mainly considered from the perspective of protecting the farmers' contractual rights and ensuring sustainable agricultural development .
What about landless and landless farmers? How to protect their basic lives? Research and exploration are also taking place everywhere. On the one hand, where conditions permit, collectively-reserved motorized land can be used. During the second round of contracting, collectively conditional motorized land can be allowed to stay no more than 5%; there is also newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the original contractor will voluntarily return it according to law. The cultivated land and contracted farmers have disappeared, and the cultivated land recovered collectively in accordance with the law should be resolved through these cultivated land.
On the other hand, it can help farmers without land and land to cultivate land by transferring land management rights, and also transfer the land of other migrant workers in cities. You can produce and manage the land that he is willing to transfer. In addition, we have to write articles outside the ground, because we cannot divide the cultivated land indefinitely to solve these problems, because China has more people and less land, which is our basic national conditions, so we must write articles from outside the ground to help the landless. Local farmers improve their employment skills, improve employment services, and broaden employment opportunities. On the one hand, we encourage migrant workers to go out to work in cities. In fact, there are a large number of young people in the rural areas, and even some places, where most of the young laborers do not work at home and go out to work.
Moreover, in implementing the strategy of rural revitalization, General Secretary Xi proposed to carry out "five revitalizations", one of which is the revitalization of rural industries, the development of rural industries, the promotion of the integration of one, two, and three industries in rural areas, the development of warehousing, cold chain logistics , Agricultural products processing, rural e-commerce, etc., including rural tourism , the way to expand farmers' employment and income. Of course, there may be those who do not have practical difficulties in living, which can be solved by providing basic social security. Thank you.