Little Strawberry Big Industry
Strawberries belong to the genus Fragaria of the family Rosaceae, which are perennial evergreen grasses with short clusters. Strawberries are classified as berries in the cultivar classification. Strawberries are soft and juicy, bright in color, sweet and sour, delicious, rich in aroma and rich in nutrition, so they have the reputation of "Queen of Fruits".
Modernly grown pineapple strawberries originate from the accidental cross between two wild strawberry species—Virginia strawberries (ie, strawberries in Florida) and Chilean strawberries. In 1915, a Russian diaspora introduced 5000 strawberry varieties "Victoria" from Moscow to Liangzipo cultivation in Heilongjiang Province. This was the beginning of strawberry cultivation in China. It has only a hundred years of cultivation history.
Strawberry development goes through three stages
China is a country rich in wild strawberry resources in the world. It has been using wild strawberries for a long time and has continued to this day. China's Tianshan Mountains, Changbai Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Daxing'an Mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau are wild strawberry gene banks. They are rich in species and quantity of wild strawberries. Resources.
The development of strawberries in China has gone through three stages. First, in the early days, before the founding of New China, strawberries were sporadically cultivated only in churches and suburbs around the city. They did not receive much attention and did not form commercial cultivation.
Second, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, strawberries in China once developed. In the 1950s, cities such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, and Qingdao and their suburbs began to be economically cultivated. In the mid-1950s, China began to import more varieties from foreign countries, such as Shenyang Agricultural College (now Shenyang Agricultural University) in 1959. A total of 26 breeds from all over the world have been introduced from the Soviet Union twice, including the American breed "Spark" and "Nobinka".
The real rapid development of strawberries in China began in the 1980s. With the implementation of China's reform and opening-up policy and the reform of the rural economic system, strawberries, as "short, flat, fast" planting projects, have developed rapidly in various places, and the cultivation area has continued to expand. From 1980 to 1995, the national strawberry cultivation area has been less than 10,000. Mu increased to 550,000 mu.
According to incomplete statistics, in 2014 China's strawberry planting area exceeded 2.2 million acres, the total output has exceeded 3.5 million tons, and the total output value has exceeded 35 billion yuan. It is a large country in the world for strawberry production and consumption.
Various cultivation techniques
Strawberry is grown in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China. The provinces with large cultivated areas are mainly concentrated in the north, with Hebei, Liaoning, and Shandong mostly. The cultivation forms are diverse. There are sunlight greenhouse cultivation, arched cultivation, and open field cultivation. The fruit mature period is from early December of each year to June of the following year. The varieties are mainly "Hongyan", "Zhang Ji", "Sweet Charlie", "Albee", "Dacelet," "All Star", "Camerosa", "Hani" and so on.
According to geographical location and climatic conditions, China's strawberry producing areas can be divided into three major producing areas, namely the northern producing area, the central producing area and the southern producing area.
The northern producing areas include the north of Qinling Mountains and the Huaihe River, and the provinces of Northeast, North China, and Northwest. The northern regions have low autumn and winter temperatures, and the temperature and duration of sunlight can meet the needs of common strawberry varieties for dormancy and flower bud differentiation. The cultivation in this production area is diverse, and common cultivation methods include open field cultivation, early maturing cultivation in small arches, semi-promoted cultivation in greenhouses, non-heated greenhouse cultivation, and warmed greenhouse cultivation.
Solar greenhouse cultivation in the northern region
The central producing areas include the Qinling Mountains, south of the Huaihe River, and the Yangtze River Basin. This area belongs to the non-cold area, and it can completely winter without open-cover cultivation. Plastic greenhouses are a common cultivation method in this area. Because the precipitation in this area is obviously more than that in the northern producing areas, deep-ditch high-trench cultivation with good drainage is often used.
Plastic greenhouse cultivation in the central region
The southern producing areas include the south of the Nanling Mountains and the provinces of South China. In the south, winter can be used for open field planting and small arch shed planting. In Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Fujian and other places, winter strawberry has developed very well.
Stand-up substrate cultivation
In addition, many areas in China have adapted their crops to the local conditions, and have grown a good way to increase income, such as strawberry and rice, vegetable rotation, strawberry and corn intercropping, strawberry and cotton, and vegetable interplanting, which have achieved good results.
Five bottlenecks restrict industry development
Although in terms of planting area and total output, China has become a big country in strawberries, and strawberry has brought significant economic and social benefits to the main producing areas. However, the strawberry industry in China as a whole is at a relatively low level. From varieties to food safety , the problems in the strawberry industry in China restrict the development of strawberries in China.
At present, China lacks comprehensive varieties with good flavor, strong flavor, high yield and few diseases.
At present, seedlings self-propagate and self-produce in many places in China, which cause problems such as impure seedlings, degradation, serious diseases and insect pests, and inability to guarantee the quality of seedlings, which restrict the development of strawberries in China.
Repeat crop problem
Repeated cropping of strawberries will bring some diseases and insect pests, which will reduce the quality of strawberries and use too much medicine.
Food safety issues
Food safety is an issue that everyone is concerned about. China's strawberry industry has not strict production standards, incomplete detection systems, and unsafe factors in the production process.
Deep processing problem
Although the output of strawberries in China has reached more than 2 million tons in 2015, 95% of strawberries in China are fresh. The deep processing of strawberries in China is still at a low level. There is no special deep processing variety as in foreign countries, but fresh Use the remaining strawberry fruit for further processing.
The strawberry industry still has a vast world
Researcher Zhang Yuntao, director of the Strawberry Branch of the Chinese Horticultural Society, said that domestic consumption will continue to grow in the future, and there is still much room for improvement in the strawberry industry.
Zhang Yuntao's three-point outlook
自主选育的草莓品种将成为主栽品种。 1. Self-selected strawberry varieties will become the main planting varieties. In recent years, domestic breeding companies have used European and American varieties and Japanese varieties for continuous cross breeding, and have developed many varieties that are superior to foreign varieties. For example, the "Beijing Tibetan incense" bred by the research of forestry fruit trees of the Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences is very suitable for planting in Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and other places. The "Jingtaoxiang" has a strong peach fragrance and is very popular with consumers. It is very suitable pick.
专业化育苗，尤其是冷凉地区育苗及无毒苗的生产规模会越来越大。 2. Specialized seedling raising, especially the production scale of seedling raising and non-toxic seedlings in cold and cool areas will become larger and larger. The market demand for Four Seasons strawberries will become larger and larger, and the production area will increase exponentially in northern Hebei, high mountains in Shaanxi, and high altitude areas in Yunnan.
草莓野生资源会得到利用。 3. Wild strawberry resources will be used. Wild strawberry resources in China are very abundant. On the basis of clarifying the distribution of strawberry wild resources, using wild resources to cultivate varieties with stronger flavor and stronger disease resistance will start.
In short, on the one hand, with the gradual upgrading of strawberry varieties, breeding methods, cultivation and management technologies, the yield of strawberry in China will increase significantly, and the level of modernization of strawberry production will gradually increase. On the other hand, as the planting plan in the main producing area becomes more reasonable and the effective resources are further integrated, the scale benefits of strawberry production will become more apparent.