China Agricultural Internet of Things: Agricultural solutions dominate, and the application as a whole is in the pilot stage
Agricultural Internet of Things , which uses temperature sensors , humidity sensors , Ph value sensors , light sensors, CO2 sensors and other equipment of the Internet of Things system to detect physical quantities such as temperature, relative humidity, Ph value, light intensity, soil nutrients, CO2 concentration The parameters are displayed in real-time through various instruments or participated in the automatic control as the parameters of the automatic control to ensure that the crops have a good and suitable growing environment. The realization of remote control enables planters to monitor and control the environment of multiple greenhouses in the office. The use of wireless networks to measure and obtain the conditions for crop growth can provide a scientific basis for greenhouse regulation, to increase yields, improve quality, regulate growth cycles, and improve economic benefits.
The agricultural Internet of Things is welcomed by agricultural production personnel for its high efficiency, convenience, and intelligence. At present, the application areas of the agricultural Internet of Things are mainly the following:
采摘控制系统 Picking control system
Generally speaking, the area planted or cultured in agricultural parks is much larger than that cultivated by traditional farmers, and traditional agricultural production mainly determines the harvest time of crops based on manual observation and experience. This method often misses the harvest time and reduces agricultural products. Value affects the economic benefits of the enterprise. Set up an IoT harvesting control system, which can automatically predict the harvesting period of crops through the set harvesting time and polling (inquire the detectors in turn) to increase the value of commodities, reduce labor consumption costs, and improve the company 's ability to manage large-scale production .
加工控制系统 2.Processing control system
At present, most domestic agricultural product enterprises use semi-manual and semi-machines for crop planting and aquaculture product processing, with artificial labor occupying a dominant position. Due to the uneven processing levels of workers and the unsafe processing environment, product quality is unguaranteed and microbial contamination is likely to occur. Set up a processing control system, which can reduce manual and direct processing, avoid human pollution, and effectively improve production efficiency through the control of automatic production technologies such as cleaning, preservation, and drying.
收购、流通控制及销售控制系统 3. Acquisition, circulation control and sales control systems
Aiming at the needs of acquisition, circulation, and sales in the process of post-production commercialization of agricultural products and the acquisition of market information, the acquisition control system, circulation control system, and sales system were constructed to obtain information on changes in agricultural product prices and market supply and demand in various links; At the same time, it will track all links of agricultural products to ensure the safety in the process of agricultural products circulation.
视频监控系统 4. Video surveillance system
Combining the video surveillance system with planting and breeding supervision, pest early warning and forecasting prevention, processing control and other systems to achieve visual tracking of agricultural production, processing, and distribution links, which facilitates technicians to observe and take effective measures in a timely manner to ensure production, processing, and distribution. Smoothly.
溯源系统 5. Traceability system
The establishment of a traceability information service platform, its information collection covers all aspects of animal and plant seed procurement, sowing (aquaculture), fertilization and medicine, harvesting, processing, transportation, entering supermarkets and other links; at the same time, it can also introduce and facilitate third-party supervision in a timely manner to strengthen The quality management of the production process of agricultural products has facilitated the inquiry of the safety of various production links of agricultural products and the traceability from the dining table to the place of origin.
Looking at the current development of the agricultural Internet of Things in China , the agricultural Internet of Things was born out of demand, but it was not developed by farmers to solve their needs voluntarily. Therefore, the operation of agricultural Internet of Things companies is only a case by case. The entire application of Agricultural Internet of Things is in pilot. stage. Therefore, the development of the agricultural Internet of Things still has a long way to go.
At present, the per capita arable land area in China is far below the world average and the total arable land area is declining, the proportion of good arable land is extremely low, the quality of arable land is reduced due to excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the quality of agricultural products is reduced. Frequent natural disasters and other problems are restricting China's agriculture The main issue of production quality and output. In 2017, China's cumulative grain import volume was 130.62 million tons, of which cumulative soybean imports were 95.53 million tons, rice imports were 4.03 million tons, and wheat imports were 4.42 million tons. China is a big agricultural country. Agricultural production policy has been proposed as the first policy document. In response to the above-mentioned problems in agriculture in China, to improve the output, quality and production efficiency of agricultural products, concepts related to smart agriculture have been proposed many times in government planning.
In a general sense, smart agriculture refers to a new type of agricultural production that perceives, manages, and intelligently controls the entire process of agricultural production and circulation. It can realize functions such as agricultural visual diagnosis, remote control, disaster early warning, and traceability of distribution processes. . Smart agriculture is the development goal, and the agricultural Internet of Things is the way to achieve smart agriculture.
After years of precipitation of the Internet of Things industry and research on nearly a hundred agricultural Internet of Things companies, research shows that in the future, agricultural Internet of Things companies will exist in the form of organization of equipment vendors, solution providers and operators. From the perspective of enterprise development, currently it is in the early stage of the development of the agricultural Internet of Things. The agricultural Internet of Things platform enterprises are mainly solutions , and no true platform-based enterprise has yet formed. In terms of scale, in 2017, only one Chinese agricultural IoT company had a profit of more than 10 million, and only about 10 had a profit of more than one million. More than half of the companies had less than 50 employees, and 85% of them participated in government-led agriculture. The project may accept government agricultural subsidies.
The survey found that in response to the current problems of excessive use of antibiotics, severe drug residues in livestock and poultry products, and poor product quality, and the increasing demand for meat, egg and milk in the people's lives, large listed farming companies have begun to adopt environmental control systems. , Feed systems, and information management systems for refined farming. Due to the particularity of the production materials and the results (meat, eggs, milk, etc.) of the breeding industry, in order to reduce the mortality of the means of production and improve its productivity and quality, large-scale breeding companies have the ability and willingness to introduce new technologies and concepts. Upgrade management during production. The survey results show that the current development of the agricultural Internet of Things in the aquaculture industry is based on solutions, whether it is the intelligent upgrade of traditional large-scale farming enterprises or the entry of Internet giants such as NetEase; however, it should be noted that Alibaba Cloud and the Sichuan Special Economic Zone Group and Dekang Group to train the ET brain; JD.com has developed the " AI + IOT + SaaS" solution through cooperation with the China Agricultural University, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and other institutions, which have initially provided the foundation for the agricultural Internet of Things platform. , And has the potential to become an early agricultural IoT operator.
Unlike the breeding industry, the development of the agricultural Internet of Things in the planting industry is relatively slow. According to the research of the United Animal Networking Research Institute, due to the low return of the crop industry and the rising prices of agricultural production services, agricultural IoT companies generally face problems such as talent shortages, excessive equipment and software service costs, and lack of funds. However, China's current land policy has resulted in the relatively decentralized agricultural land, which has resulted in a high cost of intelligent layout per unit area, which has further limited the development of China's agricultural Internet of Things . At present, agricultural Internet of Things companies mainly provide solutions, and the overall scale is relatively small, and there is no grasping platform-type company for the development of Internet of Things . From this perspective, the development of the agricultural Internet of Things, especially in the plantation industry, has a long time to develop.
The development of the agricultural Internet of Things still has a long way to go. To develop the agricultural Internet of Things, the government and enterprises may need to work together in three aspects: improving infrastructure, increasing personnel training, and increasing policy funding support.