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The agricultural format refers to different agricultural products (services), agricultural management methods, and agricultural management organization forms formed by the integration of multiple elements.
Due to the diversity of agricultural resource elements, in recent years, through the integration of resources in different ways, a variety of new agricultural formats such as service, innovation, socialization, and industrialization have been spawned. The development of various formats has different stages.
I. New formats of service agriculture
Through the horizontal expansion of the industrial chain, new business forms of service agriculture such as leisure agriculture , exhibition agriculture, landscape agriculture, creative agriculture, and balcony agriculture have emerged.
Leisure agriculture is a new type of agricultural production and management form that utilizes agricultural landscape resources and agricultural production conditions to develop tourism, leisure, and tourism. New ways to develop the potential of agricultural resources, adjust the agricultural structure, improve the agricultural environment, and increase farmers' incomes.
Leisure agriculture as a whole has entered a growth period, and market competition has gradually intensified, facing transformation and upgrading. At present, leisure agriculture has shown a comprehensive development trend in China, with products becoming increasingly abundant, the scale constantly expanding, and profits accelerating. But the market is far from being saturated, and there is still plenty of room for future development. It is estimated that the national leisure tourism market will exceed 8 billion person-times, which is much higher than the current annual reception of 2.2 billion people.
With the participation of more and more entities, competition in leisure agriculture will gradually intensify. In some areas around large and medium-sized cities that started early and developed rapidly, the development and upgrading of leisure agriculture has become urgent.
2. Exhibition agriculture
Agricultural exhibitions are exhibitions and conferences about agriculture. Exhibitions refer to various agricultural expositions, trade fairs, order fairs, and exhibitions, and conferences include various agricultural forums, trade fairs, exchanges, and so on.
The growth rate of exhibition agriculture has slowed down, the market is becoming more mature, and the competition and integration stage has generally entered. From the perspective of growth potential, the number of newly-developed agricultural exhibitions and agricultural festivals will slow down in the future, and it will enter the stage of competition and integration. In the future, more development will be to build exhibition brands, strengthen the development of exhibitions, festival derivative products, and explore marketization. Mode of operation, etc.
3. Creative agriculture
Creative agriculture is in its infancy, and is currently integrated into the development of leisure and tourism products in the form of creative elements, with a small market share. Creative agriculture includes product ideas, service ideas, environmental ideas, and activity ideas. At present, product ideas and activity ideas are the main focus.
In terms of product creativity, it is mainly by making product functions and shapes new or giving cultural new ideas that ordinary agricultural products become souvenirs and even works of art, thereby doubling their worth. In terms of event creativity, it mainly refers to enhancing the value of consumer experience by holding creative events on a regular or irregular basis.
Creative agriculture currently does not have a large-scale market share. There is still a long way to go from creating ideas to forming industries.
4. Balcony agriculture
Balcony agriculture is literally understood as the agricultural production on the balcony space, which has all the functions of the ground soil space, but from a technical perspective, the technology involved in balcony agriculture is more advanced and the cultivation mode is more soilless. Production products tend to appreciate and self-sufficiency.
Balcony agriculture began to enter the city, implementing cultivation without soil, intelligent equipment, and intensive space. Some large cities have developed rapidly. Dwarf tomatoes, apples, peaches, and potted vegetables have appeared on the market in some regions. The new form of urban modern agriculture meets the needs of citizens for a better environment and leisure life, and is gradually becoming a way of life for citizens.
Balcony agriculture is still in the initial promotion stage. To form an industry, it is necessary to solve key issues such as balcony microclimate constraints and adaptive equipment and technology development.
2. New forms of agricultural innovation
The infiltration of high technology, represented by modern biotechnology and information technology, into agriculture has led to new forms of innovative agriculture such as bioagriculture, smart agriculture , and agricultural big data applications .
Bio-agriculture refers to agricultural production methods that use advanced biotechnology and production techniques to cultivate various crops. These include plantation, forestry, microbial fermentation engineering industries, animal husbandry and other production projects.
Biological agriculture as a whole has entered the initial stage of large-scale industrialization, and has broad prospects for development. Modern biotechnology has been promoted and applied in the field of agriculture, thus forming a bioagriculture that covers the fields of biological breeding, biological pesticides, biological fertilizers, biological feed, biological vaccines and preparations.
In recent years, the scale of bio-agriculture has continued to expand, and the industry has been continuously optimized and upgraded. For example, the size of the biological vaccine market increased from 5.8 billion yuan in 2009 to 15.1 billion yuan in 2015, with an average annual growth rate of 22%. It is estimated that by 2020, the total output value of China's biological agriculture will reach 1 trillion yuan.
2. Smart agriculture
Smart agriculture is the application of the Internet of Things technology to traditional agriculture , using sensors and software to control agricultural production through mobile platforms or computer platforms, making traditional agriculture more "smart".
In addition to precise perception, control, and decision management, in a broad sense, smart agriculture also includes agricultural e-commerce, food traceability and anti-counterfeiting, logistics and transportation , agricultural leisure tourism, and agricultural information services.
It is in the stage of moving from the budding stage to the growing stage, and most of them are pilot demonstrations, and large-scale commercial applications will take time. From the perspective of productivity, commerciality, profitability, and organization, smart agriculture has not yet achieved industrialization due to high technical equipment costs, immature markets, low scale, and low standardization.
Agricultural big data is a collection of data that combines a wide range of sources, types, complex structures, and potential value, and is difficult to apply ordinary methods to process and analyze.
Agricultural big data resources have not yet found an effective development and application model, and the whole is in its infancy. At present, Jingdong and Taobao are the typical applications of big data for agricultural products.
JD.com's "JD.com Brain" has brought personalized and regional recommendation results to consumers, which can help people in different regions and different consumption habits to obtain the best quality recommended products for them.
Taobao has launched an agricultural product e-commerce consumption analysis platform. Based on past sales information and “Taobao Index”, merchants can display charts, transaction indexes, etc. to users with visual charts.
At present, the openness and trading of big data have not yet formed the mainstream form of the market. In addition, legal and data trading mechanisms need to be improved. Jingdong, Taobao and other trading platforms are cautious about opening trading data to the outside world.
4. Agricultural products e-commerce
E-commerce for agricultural products is referred to as e-commerce for agricultural products, which refers to the direct sale of agricultural products and fresh products on the Internet by means of e-commerce, such as grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, organic foods, local specialties, and fresh meat. The rapid development of the Internet will effectively promote the pace of agricultural industrialization , promote the development of agricultural economy, eventually realize the global village, and change the way of agricultural product transactions.
E-commerce for agricultural products has entered a fast-growing stage in the growth period, and various bottlenecks are emerging. There is still room for breakthroughs in platform operations, agricultural product standardization, and warehousing and logistics. Agricultural e-commerce has developed rapidly in recent years, but the profitability of e-commerce trading companies is generally not high, and most companies are burning money to spread the market.
Third, new forms of social agriculture
The refinement of social division of labor and the transformation of social organization methods have led to new forms of socialized agriculture, such as agricultural crowdfunding, contract farming, community-supported agriculture, rural pension services, agricultural production services, and private customization of agricultural products.
Contract agriculture, also known as contract agriculture or contract agriculture, is a new type of agricultural production and management model that has emerged in recent years. Farmers organize and arrange agricultural production according to orders signed between themselves or their rural organizations and purchasers of agricultural products. An agricultural production and marketing model. Contract farming is well adapted to market needs and avoids blind production.
At present, there are two main types of new forms of agricultural orders. One is the circulation and catering service companies that extend the industrial chain and establish a direct supply base for raw materials. The other is the establishment of a cooperation model between the enterprise and the agricultural product base, using the base as a company employee. Purchase agricultural products and leisure experience places to provide internal benefits for company employees.
2. Communities support agriculture
Community-supported agriculture is also called a citizen's vegetable garden. Consumers pay advance reservations and farms supply agricultural products to them on demand. This is a new urban-rural cooperation model in which producers and consumers share risks and share benefits.
Community support for agriculture creates a direct link between farmers and consumers, and also provides a reliable way for consumers to obtain healthy and safe agricultural products. There are certain business opportunities that need to be continuously explored and improved.
4. Agricultural Production Services
Agricultural production services refer to socialized services that run through the agricultural production operation chain and directly or assist in the completion of agricultural pre-, mid-, and post-harvest operations.
At present, in the agricultural production and service industry, through the implementation of agricultural machinery services, agricultural technology services, land custody, animal and plant epidemic prevention and control, etc., guide farmers to achieve "service outsourcing", in order to solve "who is to grow the land" and "how to grow the land", etc. The problem provides a way out.
Crowdfunding of agriculture and private customization of agricultural products are in their infancy. These new types of business mainly serve specific consumer groups and have higher returns, which is a new trend in the diversified development of agriculture.
The plant factory is an advanced stage of the development of modern facility agriculture . It is a high-input, high-tech, precision-equipped production system. It integrates biotechnology, engineering technology, and system management to make agricultural production free from natural ecological constraints as planned. An annual industrialized agricultural system for the production of plant products.
Leisure agriculture, Internet + agriculture, smart agriculture ... Which new agricultural industry is better?
The plant factory is an advanced stage of industrialized agriculture, which is still in its infancy, and is currently mainly used for experimental demonstration. From the development of Austria, Denmark, the United States, Japan and other countries, industrialized agriculture has great potential and good prospects.
At present, the development of new agricultural business forms still has strong regional characteristics.
First, there are obvious differences in the eastern, central, and western regions. The development of new formats is closely related to the level of economic development. The more developed the economy, the more developed the new agricultural business will be. For example, the overall level of leisure agriculture development in the eastern region is significantly higher than in the central and western regions.
Second, urbanization has become an important driving force. The surrounding areas of large and medium-sized cities have both urban and rural functions, and they are areas where new agricultural formats have been developed. In particular, the dense urban population, diverse consumer needs, and convenience of leisure have provided market support for the new format. The higher the level of urbanization, the more diverse the new agricultural business types and the more mature the business development.
Leisure agriculture, Internet + agriculture, smart agriculture ... Which new agricultural industry is better?
The third is the hierarchical structure of development space. In terms of space, the new agricultural industry develops from the suburbs to the middle and far suburbs, forming a hierarchical structure difference. The main manifestations are: in the type of industry, the closer to the city, the closer to urban leisure; the further away from the city, the closer to ecological leisure.