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Compared with new-type agricultural operators and industrial and commercial capital entering rural areas, small farmers have the most lack of opportunities and capabilities to connect with modern agriculture , and are also the weakest link that deserves our attention and improvement.
The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly stated that "the organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development" should be achieved. In the first document of the Central Committee of the People's Republic of China in 2018, Article 5 was specially listed in Part III, and "the promotion of organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development" was deployed.
Promote the organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development, pointing directly at the weak links in the construction of a modern agricultural industrial system, production system, and management system, and grasping the difficulties in improving farmers' sense of gain, happiness, and security; the quality of promoting agricultural development Change, efficiency change, and power change can also play the finishing touch.
First of all, prevent small farmers from becoming "marginal people" or those with damaged interests in developing modern agriculture. On the whole, for a long time to come, it will still be the basic national conditions and inevitable choices for China's agriculture to take small-scale farmers' households as the main body. In this context, effectively preventing small farmers from being squeezed into the marginal position of developing modern agriculture, causing small farmers to become the losers of the interests of developing modern agriculture, and it is becoming more and more urgent. Judging from domestic and foreign experiences, there are roughly the following reasons: First, in the formulation and implementation of agricultural policies, many localities support "overheating" and "excessive" support for new agricultural business entities, leading to the new agricultural business entities facing The development environment is relatively superior, forming "fact discrimination" against a large number of small farmers, and the "unfair competition pattern" facing small farmers. Second, in development practice, turning a blind eye to or underestimating the common problems and key difficulties faced by small farmers in production and life has led to them becoming a “forgotten corner” by agricultural and rural policies, and has also led to basic public services for small farmers to become The "blind zone" of agricultural and rural policies. Thirdly, compared with the main body of new agricultural operations, most small farmers are vulnerable to a weak position in market competition and are more likely to be "marginalized".
Second, better guarantee food security and rural cultural heritage, ecological protection, and social stability. Judging from domestic and foreign experience and lessons, the comparative advantages of farmer households in agriculture are often not necessarily expressed in pure economic aspects, but are more often expressed as comprehensive advantages in economic, social, cultural, and ecological aspects, which are guarantees. The country's food security, the protection of local culture and ecological environment, and even the important forces of maintaining rural social stability. Under the current "small and scattered" pattern of the majority of rural households in China, promoting land transfer and modest agricultural scale operations is conducive to improving agricultural labor productivity, land productivity, and agricultural operation benefits, but the scale of land transfer and agricultural operations can be expanded to To what extent, we must consider not only the characteristics of agricultural production and the impact of changes in agricultural labor productivity, land productivity, and agricultural business efficiency under different operating scales, but also how much development and industrialization, informationization, and urbanization can provide agricultural labor and employment. Expansion capacity. Regarding the former and disregarding the latter, it not only affects farmers 'sense of gain, happiness, and security, but also creates hidden dangers that endanger rural and urban-rural social stability by affecting farmers' employment income.
Finally, the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, small farmers to discuss and build modern agriculture development is the meaning of the topic. To implement the strategy of rural rejuvenation, it is necessary to take safeguarding the fundamental interests of farmers and promoting the common prosperity of farmers as the fundamental starting point and end point. Compared with the new agricultural business entities and the industrial and commercial capital entering the rural areas, small farmers have the most lack of opportunities and capabilities to achieve joint development, sharing and development, and are most likely to become the weak link in the construction of a modern agricultural industrial system, production system, and management system. Promoting the organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development can provide effective guarantees in these areas.
Based on the above reasons, we must take a multi-pronged approach to promote the organic connection between small farmers and modern agriculture:
Actively support the development of agricultural productive services. A developed agricultural productive service industry is conducive to promoting small farmers' cost savings and efficiency, and reducing risks, which in turn is conducive to improving agricultural quality, efficiency and competitiveness. The development of agricultural productive service industry can also take advantage of specialization to help small farmers reduce the input of factors and waste of resources in the agricultural production process, and better promote the development of quality agriculture and green agriculture. It is necessary to actively guide the whole-process and coordinated development of the agricultural productive service industry, and encourage innovative ways to support the agricultural productive service industry. In view of the fact that agricultural productive services for small farmers often have high transaction costs, in order to encourage the development of market-oriented and operational agricultural productive services, it is recommended that the agricultural productive services for small farmers be exempted from VAT.
Actively support industrial and commercial capital and new agricultural business entities to drive small farmers to integrate organically with modern agricultural development. It is necessary to combine the innovation of fiscal, taxation and financial support policies, encourage the transformation of new agricultural business entities to agricultural productive service entities, and enhance the ability to provide agricultural productive services to small farmers. Demonstration should be given to encouraging business capital and new agricultural business entities to establish, lead or participate in the construction of grain production functional zones, important agricultural product market protection zones, characteristic agricultural product advantage zones, and modern agricultural industrial parks , agricultural science and technology parks, and rural one, two, and three industries. At the same time, strengthening the construction of agricultural productive service capacity for small farmers is an important content of these "districts and gardens". Focusing on supporting the development of these "districts and gardens", guide the agglomeration, clustering and intensive development of agricultural productive service industries, and promote the standardization and brand development of agricultural productive service industries.
Guide and support small farmers to increase their ability to integrate organically with modern agricultural development. In developing ecological agriculture , experiencing agriculture, custom agriculture, and niche and special agricultural product production, small farmers often have special competitive advantages in certain areas. The Central Document No. 1 of 2018 particularly emphasized the need to improve the interest chain and allow farmers to reasonably share the value-added benefits of the entire industry chain. From the perspective of driving small farmers to share the fruits of modern agricultural development, the improvement of the benefit chain should be understood in a broad sense. It should not only include driving small farmers to increase their income, but also include driving small farmers to increase their income-increasing ability in “doing secondary schools”. In addition, by guiding farmers to participate in cooperatives, the ability of farmers to join forces to participate in market negotiations is enhanced; through the development of agricultural insurance and other measures, the environment for small farmers to participate in agricultural development is optimized.