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With the rapid development of logistics technology, cold chain logistics is on the rise. However, the development of cold chain logistics currently faces difficulties in technology and cost. However, under the background of continuous improvement of policies and market environment, the cold chain logistics industry will usher in new development opportunities.
More and more things are now available online, including fresh and semi-finished ingredients that are not easy to store and keep fresh. According to data, in 2017 China's fresh e-commerce market transaction size was about 139.13 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 59.7%. Behind the rise of fresh food e-commerce, cold chain logistics, which is responsible for the transportation and distribution of fresh food, has played a crucial role.
Cold chain logistics is an important support
In the field of fresh produce, regardless of the size of the company, the problem that cannot be bypassed is ColdChainLogistics, which is called the "Everest" in this field by the international logistics industry. Some public opinion once asserted: "In the fight against fresh e-commerce, whoever wins logistics wins."
At present, the product categories operated by fresh e-commerce mainly include seafood and aquatic products, meat and eggs, dairy products, grain and oil, fruits and vegetables . Based on the product categories, it accounts for approximately 17.0% of meat, 22.3% of aquatic products, 18.1% of fruits, and 34.5% of vegetables. These four categories account for more than 90%. Others mainly include dairy products, instant foods, grains and oils, etc. . The high gross profit rate of commodities, the high demand for daily life, and the high repeat purchase rate are the outstanding characteristics of this type of fresh products, but at the same time, short shelf life and easy consumption are also significant features of fresh products.
The cold chain has become a key link to ensure food quality and reduce losses during the fresh transportation and distribution process. With the development of the industry, many fresh-food e-commerce platforms have begun to increase the construction of the fresh-food supply chain and deepen the industrial chain. One of the most important points is to speed up the construction and improvement of the cold chain logistics system. Cold chain logistics is not only the key to reducing costs, improving efficiency, and ensuring the quality and stability of products for fresh food e-commerce companies, but also an important support for fresh food e-commerce to maintain long-term vitality and rapid development.
Nowadays, logistics costs account for a large proportion of the cost structure of fresh food e-commerce, generally 30% -40%, and the distribution cost of fresh fruits and vegetables is even more than 50%. The development of the cold chain logistics system determines the operation Cost and profit distribution. If the quality of the cold chain is not high, it may be abandoned.
Three major problems of cold chain logistics
With the improvement of consumption level, consumers hope that they can more conveniently purchase the ingredients they want, and on the other hand, they also put forward higher requirements on the freshness of the ingredients.
However, a simple "fresh" word has become the biggest problem facing fresh e-commerce. The ingredients in the place of origin can be purchased globally, but it is not easy to ensure that the cold chain is continuously chained throughout the transportation process to allow the ingredients to reach the consumers from the place of origin in the freshest state in the shortest time.
Overall, the development of cold chain logistics currently faces three major challenges:
1. The technical difficulty of controlling the quality of the entire flow of distribution is high
The core of cold chain logistics is temperature control and real-time monitoring. As a link between fresh products and consumers, the cold chain logistics links include: pre-cooling, refrigeration, transportation, and sales. Each link involves different cold chain equipment, each link requires corresponding cold chain technology and seamless link between different links is needed to control the quality of the whole process flow. The current status of China's cold chain equipment is that there are insufficient local facilities with few users, which cannot guarantee the full temperature control of cold chain logistics, and quality and safety are difficult to guarantee.
2. High cost in cold chain professional management and capital investment
The requirements for cold chain logistics are relatively high, and the corresponding management and capital investment is also greater than ordinary room temperature logistics. The logistics and distribution of the room temperature system only need to lease the cheap storage space, but the cold chain system requires not only the storage space but also the initial cold storage transformation, refrigerated vehicles, and continuous cooling.
3. Lack of a set of standardized industry standards
The development of China's cold chain industry is still uneven, the industry concentration is low, there is no giant that can integrate resources, and it lacks a standard and standardized operating system. The current situation of decentralized operations makes enterprises independent, unable to form a scale effect for optimal scheduling, and the service network and information system are not sound enough, which greatly affects the quality, accuracy and timeliness of food logistics in transit.
Future development of cold chain logistics
With the improvement of urban living standards and the increase of fresh food e-commerce, the cold chain demand for fresh food consumption is growing rapidly. Data show that in the next three to five years, the scale of China's cold chain market will reach 470 billion yuan, with a compound annual growth rate of more than 20%. Under the background of the continuous improvement of policies and market environment, the cold chain logistics industry has ushered in new development opportunities.
At present, the logistics distribution of major fresh food e-commerce platforms mostly adopts the "two-stage" half-range cold chain, that is, relying on the inter-city trunk cold chain transportation, using urban cold storage as the node, and cooperate with heat preservation facilities such as refrigerated trucks to complete the delivery. However, the use of professional refrigerated trucks for distribution to households is too costly for retail residents who are scattered in residential buildings.
In the wave of new retail, many fresh food companies have begun to try to integrate the resources of online and offline physical stores, that is, by setting up front warehouses and laying physical stores, "points" and "faces" are established to establish three kilometers The radiation distribution system greatly shortens the distribution distance and saves time. The same can be used for short-distance distribution by using ice packs to keep the goods at a low temperature and also save logistics costs for continuous refrigeration.
In addition, dedicated to storage facilities and transportation facilities for cold chain logistics, some companies in the industry have also started to develop research on the independent research and development of fresh-keeping technology, cold-chain transportation traceability system, and new energy cold-chain electric vehicle cold storage technology , And cooperated with Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. to produce new energy electric cold chain vehicles to create "green smart logistics".
In summary, cold chain logistics capability is one of the core competitiveness of fresh food e-commerce. With the capture of cold chain technology and the joining of many enterprises, I believe that in the future, when facing the "cold chain logistics", Businessmen can do everything with ease, no longer "difficult"!