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No matter what industry you are in, you must be able to see various ⎝⎛优德w88体育网⎞⎠ about Block Chain in your circle of friends this year. In 2018, the vigorous block chain caught off guard from entering the field of agricultural people. The well-known angel investor Xu Xiaoping called it a "great technological revolution of the prosperous and the perverse of the perverse", and believed that it would be more rapid and thorough than the Internet's subversion of tradition. Tencent, Netease, and various investors poured into the blockchain. What exactly is a blockchain? What new changes and new opportunities does blockchain bring to modern agriculture ?
How hot is blockchain?
Recently, ⎝⎛优德w88体育网⎞⎠ about Bitcoin has been very eye-catching, and the blockchain has also caught fire. Everyone who talks about blockchain has his eyes shining with Jin Chancan's dream. In the capital market, the stock prices of various blockchain concept stocks are as thrilling as roller coasters. From the responsive capital market, it can be seen that the blockchain is standing on the cusp and has attracted great attention from all parties. If you haven't heard of blockchain, then the following content should look good!
After the establishment of Kodak, which has a history of 130 years, the stock price has skyrocketed in the past two trading days after announcing the launch of KodakOne, a photo ownership management platform supported by blockchain technology, and the launch of Kodak Coin, a token used inside the platform. 212.9%.
Known as the first share of the blockchain by the market, the easy to see Supply Chain Management Co., Ltd. has started four daily limit boards since January 8 with a cumulative increase of 46.41%.
As soon as the ⎝⎛优德w88体育网⎞⎠ of blockchains such as Youjiu, Jiucheng, Langang, and NetEase was released, the stock price increased.
What is a blockchain?
The “China Blockchain Technology and Application Development White Paper 2016” issued under the guidance of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology explains: In a broad sense, blockchain technology uses a blockchain data structure to verify and store data, and uses distributed node consensus algorithms to generate and update Data, a new distributed infrastructure and computing paradigm that uses cryptography to ensure data transmission and access security, and uses smart contracts composed of automated script code to program and manipulate data.
He Fei, a senior researcher at the Bank of Communications Financial Research Center, made a popular explanation: "Simply speaking, blockchain is a kind of decentralized distributed ledger database." Decentralization, which is different from traditional centralized methods, here is There is no center, or everyone is a center; a distributed ledger database means that the recording method is not just to store the ledger data at each node, but each node will simultaneously share and copy the entire ledger data. At the same time, the blockchain also has the characteristics of de-intermediation and information transparency.
In simple terms, blockchain technology refers to a way for people to participate in bookkeeping. There is a database behind all the systems, you can think of the database as a large ledger. Then it becomes important who keeps this ledger.
Whose system is currently used to keep accounts, the account of WeChat is Tencent, and the account of Taobao is Ali. But now in the blockchain system, everyone in the system can have the opportunity to participate in bookkeeping. If there is any data change in a certain period of time, everyone in the system can come to perform accounting. The system will judge the person who recorded the fastest period of time, write his recorded content to the ledger, and record the period of time. The contents of the internal ledger are sent to all others in the system for backup. In this way everyone in the system has a complete ledger. In this way, we call it blockchain technology.
The most significant advantages of the blockchain industry application are optimizing business processes, reducing operating costs, and improving synergy efficiency. This advantage has gradually been reflected in social areas such as financial services, the Internet of Things , public services, social welfare, and supply chain management.
Is blockchain related to agriculture?
The main contradiction of the current society has been transformed into the contradiction between the people's increasing needs for a better life and imbalanced and insufficient development. In fact, the imbalance between supply and demand and insufficient development are also the crux of the " three rural issues".
The current situation is that from the supply side, many agricultural products are not sold well and there is no market for products. From the demand side, consumers are struggling to buy safe food, there is no demand for supply, and they rely heavily on imports. From the perspective of the industry, these are mainly due to the imbalance between supply and demand of agricultural products, and the main reason for the imbalance between supply and demand is that in the three major links of agricultural production , distribution and consumption, producers and consumers are too scattered and weak, and the two sides cannot achieve information. Symmetric, can not directly dock, can not determine the price. The two sides can only make rational but wrong choices: producers use all methods to reduce costs, the product is necessarily unsafe, and there is naturally no market; consumers can only choose products with lower prices, and distributors can only fight price wars. Create a vicious circle.
Zheng Yu, the CEO of Blockchain Communications and the founder of Quanmin Chain, believes that blockchain can solve this pain point. "From the perspective of consumers, through blockchain technology, you can meet the right to know and choose agricultural products you trust; from buyers, From a perspective point of view, if you are worried about the quality of agricultural products purchased in batches, you can choose trusted farmers by analyzing the planting process and big data . "
The fastest-moving is Zhongnan Construction, a "good taste" of the blockchain agricultural company that the company cooperated with Beidahuang Company. The first batch of blockchain-certified rice products has now been launched to the market.
： Case :
Zheng Yu took potato production as an example to explain that all the data of the entire potato production process will be uploaded to the distributed ledger storage, forming the content of the non-tamperable ledger, which is provided to consumers and buyers for inspection.
For example, the procurement process of fertilizers and pesticides is recorded in the book to avoid the problems of excessive heavy metal standards and excessive pesticide residues from the root cause; through the analysis of big data, the credit rating reference for growers and buyers is established; and smart contracts are used for growers and buyers Fair trade between guarantees. The sales process also stores information such as sorting and processing in a distributed ledger to ensure complete and transparent information to stakeholders.
So, in this process, how does the biggest advantage of the blockchain, that is, the advantages of distributed account books? In response, Zheng Yu said that in the past, buyers would send someone a high price for potato growers before purchasing. However, when a farmer digs up potatoes from the field, the farmer often cannot contact this contact person. At this time, the buyer sends another person to take advantage of the fact that potatoes are not easy to store on the ground, which greatly reduces the price of potatoes. With the adoption of blockchain technology, every transaction is open to everyone, and this problem can be solved.
Use blockchain technology to achieve full distribution, so that consumers, growers, buyers, wholesalers, etc. all keep synchronized accounting to prevent tampering. You can use the mutual incompatible mechanism to check and ensure the authenticity of the data and avoid benefits. Risk of concerted action under convergence.
In this regard, some analysts pointed out that the traditional traceability system is the individual behavior of a single company, and he is both an athlete and a referee, and his credibility is weak. After adopting the blockchain technology, the distributed ledger will organize farmers, cooperatives, dealers, and consumers to jointly record planting information, and use the non-tamperable feature to play a role of information transparency, which will help solve the problem of imbalance in supply and demand of agricultural products. To promote the full development of rural agriculture.
Application Prospect of Blockchain in Agriculture
At present, research institutions agree that "the blockchain market has begun to breed, and there is not yet a large-scale landing condition in the short term, and we are concerned about the landing of the upstream and downstream industrial chains and future business scenarios."
Dr. Kang Chunpeng, Information Center of the Ministry of Agriculture, believes that blockchain will be used in 6 major fields, such as IoT agriculture , traceability of agricultural products , and rural finance, and promote industrial development.
Internet of things
At present, the main factors restricting the large-scale promotion of the agricultural Internet of Things are high application and maintenance costs and poor performance. Moreover, the Internet of Things is centralized management. With the explosion of Internet of Things equipment, the infrastructure investment and maintenance costs of data centers are difficult to estimate.
The combination of the Internet of Things and the blockchain will enable these devices to achieve self-management and maintenance, which eliminates the high maintenance costs centered on cloud control, reduces the subsequent maintenance costs of Internet devices, and helps to improve the agricultural Internet of Things Level of intelligence and scale .
2. Big data
Three major achievements of traditional databases, relational model, transaction processing, and query optimization. Database technology is constantly developing. With the establishment of agricultural big data collection system in the future, how to solve the authenticity and validity of data in a large-scale manner will be a difficult problem facing the whole society.
The technology represented by the block chain requires these data to be truly valid and cannot be tampered with. This is a new starting point compared to the current database.
3. Quality and safety traceability
In the process of agricultural industrialization, there is a long distance between the place of production and the place of consumption. Consumers have no way of knowing the information on pesticides, fertilizers and additives used in transportation and processing by the producers, and consumers' trust in production has decreased.
The agricultural product traceability system based on blockchain technology, once all the data is recorded on the blockchain ledger, it cannot be changed. Advanced technology relying on asymmetric encryption and mathematical algorithms fundamentally eliminates human factors and makes information more transparent.
4. Rural Finance
Farmers' loans are generally difficult. The main reason is the lack of effective collateral, which in the final analysis is the lack of a credit mortgage mechanism. The open and immutable nature of blockchain technology provides the possibility for a decentralized trust mechanism.
When a new agricultural business entity applies for a loan, it needs to provide corresponding credit information, which depends on the corresponding information data recorded by the bank, insurance, or credit reporting agency. However, there are problems such as incomplete information, inaccurate data, and high use costs. The usefulness of the blockchain is to rely on program algorithms to automatically record massive amounts of information and store them on each computer of the blockchain network. The information is transparent, the tampering is difficult, and the use cost is low. Therefore, when applying for a loan, it is no longer necessary to rely on intermediary institutions such as banks and credit reporting companies to provide credit certificates, and the loan institution can obtain the corresponding information and data of the blockchain.
5. Agricultural insurance
Agricultural insurance has a small variety and low coverage, and insurance fraud often occurs. After combining blockchain with agricultural insurance, agricultural insurance will have a lot of room for improvement in agricultural intellectual property protection and agricultural property rights transactions, and it will greatly simplify the agricultural insurance process.
In addition, because smart contracts are an important concept of the blockchain, applying the concept of smart contracts to the field of agricultural insurance will make agricultural insurance payments more intelligent. In the past, if a large agricultural natural disaster occurred, the corresponding claim period would be relatively long. After the smart contract is applied to the blockchain, once an agricultural disaster is detected, the compensation process will be automatically started, so that the compensation efficiency is higher.
6. Supply chain
Blockchain technology helps improve the efficiency of supply chain management. Because the data is open and transparent between the parties to the transaction, a complete and smooth information flow is formed throughout the supply chain, which can ensure that the participating parties can timely find problems in the operation of the supply chain system and find them in a targeted manner. Problem-solving methods to improve the overall efficiency of supply chain management.
Blockchain technology can avoid supply chain disputes. The characteristics of immutable data and proof of the existence of time stamps can be well applied to resolve disputes between participants in the supply chain system, and achieve easy proof and accountability. Blockchain technology can be used for product anti-counterfeiting. The combination of data tamperability and transaction traceability can eliminate the problem of counterfeiting and shoddy products in the supply chain.