Research on the Application of Internet of Things Technology in Fruit and Vegetable Cold Chain Logistics
The purpose of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics is to ensure that the quality of fruits and vegetables from the field to consumers is good. However, in the circulation, the links between the various links often break, resulting in high cost of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics , difficult to guarantee quality, and unclear division of responsibilities. 应用在果蔬冷链物流中， 可以实现监管部门、果蔬冷链物流企业、消费者三者之间信息透明化， 达到查询、监督和跟踪果蔬冷链物流各环节的目的。 The application of the Internet of Things technology in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables can realize the transparency of information among the supervision department, the cold chain logistics enterprises of fruits and vegetables, and consumers, and achieve the purpose of querying, supervising and tracking the various links of cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables.
的行业，智慧物流是未来10～15年内物联网大力发展的六项战略性应用之一，物联网技术应用到物流领域推动了物流系统的快速发展，促进了物流业发展进入一个新的发展时代——智慧物流时代。 The logistics industry is the earliest industry to contact the Internet of Things . Smart logistics is one of the six strategic applications for the vigorous development of the Internet of Things in the next 10 to 15 years. The application of Internet of Things technology to the logistics field has promoted the rapid development of logistics systems and logistics. Industry development has entered a new era of development-the era of smart logistics. The development of smart logistics has brought opportunities and challenges to all areas of logistics, making some previously uncontrollable factors transparent and accountable. Effectively link the complex and diverse links in logistics operations, while reducing logistics costs, improving logistics efficiency, and enabling consumers to shop easily and rest assured. This article takes fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics as the research object. The core technology of the Internet of Things is applied to all links of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics, and the overall structure of the application of Internet of Things technology in fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics is established.
I. Status analysis of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics
At present, China's fruit and vegetable planting area and output rank first in the world. About 400 million tons of fresh agricultural products enter the circulation field every year. Due to the backwardness of the fresh-keeping industry, the storage and consumption methods are primitive. According to statistics, 80 million tons of fruits and vegetables rot every year. The rate of decay is the highest in the world. The main reason for this huge waste is that there is a problem in the circulation of fruits and vegetables from the field to the consumer's dining table, and there is no continuous fruit and vegetable food industry chain. From the planting, procurement, transportation, storage, processing, and sales of fruits and vegetables , there are no effective economic interests. Farmers only grow fruits and vegetables , fruit and vegetable distributors only buy and sell, and third-party logistics companies are only responsible for transportation and storage. Coordination among these stakeholders is difficult, the division of responsibilities is unclear, and whether consumers can buy good-quality fruits and vegetables at low prices depends on luck.
According to statistics, 60% of fruits and vegetables are sold in the current season, and the remaining 35% to 40% need to be refrigerated. Cold chain logistics plays a very important role in the circulation of fruits and vegetables and is an important factor to ensure the quality of fruits and vegetables and stabilize the market price of fruits and vegetables. However, there is a huge gap between the development level of China's fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics and the world's advanced logistics level: the cold chain logistics circulation rate is low, and the cold chain facilities and equipment are not complete. The cost of logistics operations and fruit and vegetable transactions are relatively high, on average 20% higher than in developed countries. With the improvement of people's living standards, the requirements for food quality and freshness are getting higher and higher. Cold chain logistics has caused people Of universal concern.
Key technologies for the application of the Internet of Things technology in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables
物物数据通信技术、全球定位系统技术、微机电系统技术和两化融合系统等。 The core technologies of the Internet of Things include wireless sensor network technology, radio frequency identification technology, two-dimensional code technology, M 2M material data communication technology, global positioning system technology, micro-electro-mechanical system technology, and dual-use fusion system. 传感器网络技术，因为它贯穿了物联网的全部层面，是其他层面技术的整合应用。 The most critical and core technology is wireless sensor network technology, because it runs through all layers of the Internet of Things, and is an integrated application of other layers of technology. In the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables, every link in the circulation of fruits and vegetables needs to be identified and tracked. Generally, radio frequency identification technology is applied to all links in the circulation of fruits and vegetables to achieve a seamless connection between the various links of cold chain logistics in fruits and vegetables to control and monitor the circulation of fruits and vegetables Quality. At present, the application of the Internet of Things technology in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables mainly includes the following.
1. Electronic Product Code (EPC)
The product electronic code is the latest generation product identification code that is responsible for the China Article Numbering Center. It can uniquely identify objects in the supply chain (including items, boxes, pallets, locations, etc.) worldwide. 标签上，这个标签包含一块硅芯片和一根天线，读取EPC标签时，它可以与一些动态数据连接。 The EPC is stored on an RFID tag. This tag contains a silicon chip and an antenna. When the EPC tag is read, it can be connected to some dynamic data. And use the Internet to achieve the transfer of information.
2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Radio frequency identification technology is currently a relatively advanced non-contact identification technology. It is attached to trackable items, can be circulated globally, and can be identified and read and written. RFID tags store standardized and interoperable information. The wireless data communication network automatically collects them into a central information system to realize the identification of commodities such as fruits and vegetables, and then realizes information exchange and sharing through an open computer network to achieve "transparent" management of items. It can be updated at any time, it is convenient to scan, the scanning speed is fast, multiple targets can be scanned for both visible and invisible, and the cost is low. At present, it is widely used in supermarkets, shopping malls, warehouses, libraries and other places. It is the basis and key technology for the application of the Internet of Things technology in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables.
3． QR code technology
A two-dimensional code, also called a two-dimensional bar code, is a bar code that stores information in a two-dimensional space in the horizontal and vertical directions. Two-dimensional code technology has the characteristics of large storage capacity, good confidentiality, good tracking performance, strong resistance to damage, and low cost. Mainly used for traceability of product quality issues, inventory of annual goods and fixed assets in logistics centers, storage centers, and joint logistics centers. It plays the role of immediate inventory and immediate decision-making. At the same time, consumers can query the origin of the goods by scanning the QR code on the items. .
4． Global Positioning System Technology (GPS)
The global positioning system is a new generation of satellite navigation and positioning system with real-time three-dimensional navigation and positioning capabilities of sea, land and air. As a mobile sensing technology, GPS is an important technology for the application of the Internet of Things to cold chain logistics. The combination of GPS and modern communication technology makes the method of measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the earth's surface evolve from static to dynamic, from data post-processing to real-time positioning and navigation, greatly expanding its application breadth and depth, and for cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables. Real-time query and positioning of transport vehicles and items.
5． Savant Network
Savant is a distributed network software that manages and transmits data related to electronic codes of products. The middleware between the interpreter and the Internet. The reader reads the information from the sensors and electronic tags and sends it to Savant. Savant has functions such as data smoothing, data verification, and data temporary storage. After the data is processed by Savant, it is transmitted to the Internet.
Application of Internet of Things technology in all links of cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables can be divided into seven links from picking to sales. According to the sequence of fruit and vegetable circulation, how the Internet of Things technology can guarantee the quality of fruits and vegetables in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables. The entire process of the application of the Internet of Things technology in the quality and safety of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics. Through the application of the Internet of Things technology, early warning, clarification of responsibilities, and tracking of loopholes can be guaranteed to ensure the quality and safety of fruit and vegetable circulation.
The Internet of Things technology is applied to cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables, so that safety and quality issues in the circulation of fruits and vegetables can be identified and managed intelligently, which fundamentally solves the technical, cost, service, and security issues of cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables. This problem guarantees the freshness and quality traceability of fruits and vegetables, improves the supply chain management level of fruits and vegetables, and is the future development direction of cold chain logistics for fruits and vegetables.
Fourth, the overall architecture of the application of the Internet of Things technology in the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables
This article uses the current three-tier architecture system to analyze the fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics IoT technology architecture. First, the advanced Internet of Things technology is introduced into the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables, and the information of each link of the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables is collected to realize real-time information sharing, keep the cold chain information smooth, and improve the efficiency of fruit and vegetable circulation. After the information is collected at the information perception layer, it is processed and transmitted to higher-level application layers in real time through the network layer to ensure the effective connection of all links in the cold chain and form a unified information platform. Finally, the application layer provides unified information resource support according to the needs of users and serves end users. The fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics IoT application architecture is generally divided into three layers, as shown in the figure below.
1. Information perception layer
The information perception layer is mainly based on the core technology of the Internet of Things. After the fruits and vegetables are picked, the unified EPC code identifier is first implanted in the fruits and vegetables, and readers are installed in the storage, transportation, processing, packaging, and distribution of fruits and vegetables cold chain logistics. Automatically identify the information of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics, and read or identify the quality information of fruits and vegetables; use wireless sensors , wired monitoring equipment, and information input terminals to collect information such as storage, transportation, processing, and sales in real time. The Internet of Things technology also dynamically manages all the information of the cold chain logistics of fruits and vegetables to achieve a comprehensive grasp of the information about the quality of fruits and vegetables.
2. Network communication transport layer
The network transmission layer uses various network technologies and their fusion technologies to transmit the perceived information to the fruit and vegetable supply chain information platform in a high-quality and secure manner, to realize the transmission and sharing of massive data, and to realize the demand of “connecting things”. This layer takes M2M technology as the core, combines long-distance connection technology (such as GSM, UMTS, etc.) and short-distance connection technology (such as ZibBee, Blue-Tooth, wifi, UWB, etc.) to achieve people, things, and systems within the fruit and vegetable industry chain. Communication; through readers and sensor network gateways, communication systems, and network access devices, the information obtained by the data acquisition layer is input to a certain type of special network for fruit and vegetable industry chain information. Information is interconnected safely and efficiently in the radio and television grid, communication network and other private networks.
3． Application service layer
The application layer solves the problems of information processing and human-machine interface. The data transmitted by the network layer enters various information systems for processing at this layer, and interacts with people through various devices. First of all, we should understand the needs of the fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics industry, and understand what services the system should provide from the needs. The main members concerned about the quality of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics are: government regulators, cold chain related companies and end consumers. As a government supervision department, he is responsible for the supervision, management and control of the quality of fruits and vegetables. He needs to understand all the information in the cold chain circulation of fruits and vegetables. The Internet of Things technology needs to meet the government supervision department's information at any time and provide communication with cold chain logistics enterprises. Communication platform; as a cold chain-related enterprise, first of all must grasp the dynamic information of the fruit and vegetable cold chain at various points in time, and then share this information to upstream and downstream enterprises in a timely manner through the Internet of Things platform to achieve efficient transmission of fruit and vegetable circulation information and ensure that every All links are smooth; as the final consumers of fruits and vegetables, they are most concerned about the safety and freshness of fruits and vegetables. When buying fruits and vegetables, they can achieve full traceability information to achieve the purpose of rest assured purchase.
The application of the Internet of Things technology in fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics has achieved certain results. Monitoring the information at each stage of fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics is conducive to the supervision and effectiveness of government supervision departments and achieves the purpose of no dead end management; it helps Strengthen food safety operation management for fruit and vegetable enterprises, stabilize and expand consumer groups, and improve market competitiveness; it is conducive to consumers to rest assured consumption and easily enjoy "fresh fruits and vegetables" food.