How to look at the risks and benefits of using "blockchain" technology in agricultural production? -[Xinxin Wulian]
Blockchain is a technology paradigm, and its suffix has many possibilities. Using " Internet of Things + Blockchain" technology, from chicken supply, breeding, to slaughter, circulation and other links, the information and data of each broiler are truthfully recorded on the "ID card" and cannot be tampered with; Blockchain-encrypted Dorval fish growth data is presented to consumers through a "green resume"; from land contracting to sowing and processing, all relevant rice information is recorded in the blockchain, forming the true life trajectory of each bag of rice ... The rapidly rising blockchain has brought new opportunities for the development of agricultural and rural informatization and modern agriculture .
According to the "2018 China Blockchain Industry White Paper" recently released by the Information Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, as of the end of March 2018, the number of China's blockchain companies whose main business is the blockchain business has reached 456. The number of real economy application service companies reached 109. The distributed, immutable, and traceable nature of the blockchain makes the mode and logic of its implementation in real economy industry scenarios including agricultural product production increasingly clear.
1. The production data is directly uploaded to the "warehousing", and quality traceability cannot be tampered with:
"Company + base + order farmers" is the main mode of tea industry development in Anji County, Zhejiang. "The management of thousands of households is not easy to manage, and there are always differences among farmers." Said Lai Jianhong, senior agronomist of the Anji County Agriculture Bureau. Standard plant production affects the quality of the entire batch of tea. "
Anji white tea is a local rich people industry, which brings about 1/4 of the average annual income of farmers . In order to prevent the situation of being eliminated by the market due to quality and safety issues, local requirements for quality supervision have become increasingly strict. "We need a third-party platform to avoid some uncontrollable factors in the production process, such as ensuring the rational use of agricultural resources and ensuring that farmers produce in accordance with standards." Lai Jianhong believes that blockchain can better solve agricultural product quality through technical means. Worries about safety .
"Agricultural traceability systems based on blockchain technology. Once all data is recorded on the blockchain ledger, it cannot be changed." Kang Chunpeng, an associate researcher at the Information Center of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs explained, relying on advanced technologies based on asymmetric encryption and mathematical algorithms. Human factors are basically eliminated, the information is more transparent, and the reliability of agricultural product traceability information is guaranteed.
"It is a general trend to use the blockchain to trace the origin of agricultural products ." Wang Yanfeng, a key account manager of Zhejiang Zhaoxin Digital Technology Co., Ltd. introduced that in actual operation, the agricultural product data information in the blockchain is mainly used for front-end data collection through the Internet of Things application platform. "Taking a tea garden as an example, we will install a probe over 1 meter high on the top of the tea garden as a front-end collector. A probe can cover about 10 acres of tea gardens to collect information about planting environment such as temperature, humidity , and soil. Front-end collector The job inspection function is also configured. Farmers swipe their cards at the inspection points every day, and the cloud database will receive a message, which provides real-time information for the agricultural Internet of Things and agricultural product traceability platform. "Wang Yanfeng said that due to the use of With blockchain technology, this information will go directly to the database through the data upload traceability system and cannot be changed.
"Let tea farmers bear the cost of this part is unrealistic and lacks motivation." Wang Yanfeng said that paying the brand side and installing related facilities for farmers are the main practices in the application of blockchain technology. "For enterprises, this new technology can better ensure product quality and safety, and for farmers, they can more confidently cooperate with enterprises to ensure revenue." Lai Jianhong said.
2. Credit data records are easy to retrieve, and loan claims are intelligent and efficient:
If we just consider the blockchain as a technical means of accurate traceability, it will be overkill. "Blockchain + Agricultural Internet of Things " can enable IoT devices to self-manage and maintain, reducing the subsequent maintenance costs of Internet equipment; "Blockchain + Agricultural Rural Big Data " will make agricultural and rural digital resources more real and effective.
"Blockchain is a technology paradigm, and its suffixes have many possibilities." Kang Chunpeng said, taking rural finance as an example, farmers' loans are still difficult at present, and in the final analysis, they lack a credit mortgage mechanism. Blockchain can rely on program algorithms to automatically record massive amounts of information, which is transparent, difficult to tamper with, and low in cost. "After the application of blockchain in the field of rural finance, new agricultural business entities can no longer rely on intermediary institutions such as banks and credit reporting companies to provide credit certificates when applying for loans. Loan institutions can obtain the corresponding information and data of the blockchain. The previous method not only ensures complete information and accurate data, but also reduces the cost of use. "
Agricultural insurance has a small variety and low coverage, and insurance frauds often occur. "The combination of blockchain and agricultural insurance can solve this problem." Kang Chunpeng believes that blockchain can make agricultural insurance payments more intelligent. "After the smart contract is applied to the blockchain, once an agricultural disaster is detected, the compensation process will be started automatically, so that the compensation is more efficient."
"Blockchain has more development prospects in the fields of agriculture, food and medicine." Wang Yanfeng also believes that in addition to helping agricultural enterprises improve their brand reputation, blockchain will have broader development space in the field of agricultural services.
Of course, blockchain is not a panacea. As a new technology, it does not conflict with the information technology currently used in agricultural production , but is a perfection and supplement. "Blockchain can guarantee the authenticity of data, but it is not a means of data collection." Kang Chunpeng said, "In fact, with or without blockchain, rural finance and insurance can be developed, but with the blockchain, it can solve some past problems. Manually solve tedious or difficult problems. In the process of developing the rural Internet market, companies must continue to expand the application scenarios of the blockchain. Only when a large user group participates in the blockchain, its value can be reflect."
Kang Chunpeng mentioned in particular that blockchain is a "double-edged sword". If used well, it can greatly promote the development of modern agriculture; if it is not used well, it may blow through the "blockchain + agriculture" bubble and seriously hurt agricultural and rural informatization. With the advent of the “window” of the blockchain, it is necessary to improve relevant laws and regulations as soon as possible to prevent digital currencies that use the blockchain as a gimmick to enter the countryside to carry out illegal collections and damage farmers' interests.
June 21, 2018
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd