How does the agricultural IoT industry go? Look at the three key technologies and the four core applications-[xinxinwulian]
Although China is a large agricultural country with more than 200 million agricultural employees, it still imports a large amount of food every year. With the rapid development of information technology, China hopes to change the current situation of large agricultural labor force but low production efficiency. As a key agricultural application field, the Internet of Things technology has been used in many aspects of agriculture, including environmental monitoring , meteorology, weather detection, temperature and humidity control , intelligent water-saving irrigation, product safety and traceability, and intelligent diagnostic management of equipment. This article focuses on three key technologies in the current direction of the agricultural Internet of Things , perception technology, transmission technology, and processing technology and four core applications, production environment monitoring, animal and plant life information monitoring, intelligent agricultural machinery networking, and agricultural product quality traceability.
As one of the strategic emerging industries integrating new-generation information technology, the Internet of Things has attracted much attention from all walks of life. Agriculture is one of the key application areas of the Internet of Things technology, and it is also the area where the application of the Internet of Things technology has the most urgent needs, the most difficult, and the most obvious integration features. In recent years, the Internet of Things technology has been applied to many fields of agriculture, including agricultural environmental monitoring, greenhouse production control, water-saving irrigation, meteorological monitoring, product safety and traceability, and intelligent diagnostic management of equipment. For the application of the Internet of Things technology in agriculture , the basic technology is the improvement of sensor networks . The improvement of the sensing system directly affects the operation of the entire agricultural Internet of Things technology . The agricultural Internet of Things is composed of a perception layer, a transmission layer, and a processing layer. The data information collected by sensor technology, barcode technology, global positioning and other technologies at the perception layer is transmitted to the intelligent modules such as agricultural prediction, diagnosis, control, decision-making and early warning through the wired and wireless sensor network technology and mobile communication technology at the transmission layer. .
I. Three Key Technologies of the Agricultural Internet of Things
1. Awareness technology for agricultural IoT
The sensing layer mainly includes various sensor and node technologies, global positioning system technology and bar code technology, etc., which realizes the function of collecting information on soil moisture, environmental temperature and humidity , and health status of poultry and aquatic products. It is the key technology of the agricultural Internet of Things.
At present, the application of environmental sensors such as light, temperature, water, air and heat is relatively mature. Soil sensors are a hot topic of research. The structure of the soil can be judged by the size of the electromagnetic wave reflection or the level of energy absorption, and the point output between the ion selective membrane electrode and the measured ion solution Determines specific ions in the soil. Animal and plant life information sensors made using optical and electromagnetic principles are also one of the hotspots and difficulties in research.
2. Agricultural Internet of Things transmission technology
At present, the transmission technologies in China's agricultural Internet of Things are mainly wireless and wired sensor network technologies and mobile communication technologies. Among them, the application of wireless sensor network technology is the most common, and the application of foreign wireless sensor network has reached the practical stage.
A Dutch agricultural Internet of Things project applies wireless sensor network technology to the monitoring of potato growing environments, and producers can control the epidemic based on the monitoring results, thereby preventing problems before they occur. China's agricultural Internet of Things information transmission technology is in the experimental stage. Some scholars have built a wireless sensor network monitoring system that can monitor the planting environment in real time. The sensor nodes arranged in the park can collect the temperature and humidity of soil and air, the concentration of CO2, and Light intensity and other parameters.
3. Agricultural IoT processing technology
The technology of the agricultural IoT processing layer includes cloud computing, cloud services, and module decision-making. This level is to transform the collected data information into actual operations, and use control models and strategies to intelligently control related agricultural facilities, such as turning on water taps and turning off lights. , Automatic fertilization, etc.
Intelligent decision-making is to input experience and expert knowledge into modules in advance, and to provide technical reference for agricultural production through inference and simulation thinking, such as providing technical support for farmland fertility, irrigation, pest control, animal feed formula and horticultural facilities. Intelligent early warning uses mathematical models as a means to alert the actual abnormal state and give a reminder of the danger.
Two or four core application areas
According to different monitoring objects, the Internet of Things system can be divided into the Internet of Things for agricultural production environment monitoring, the Internet of Things for animal and plant life information monitoring, the Internet of Things for agricultural machinery monitoring, the Internet of Things for quality inspection and quality safety traceability of agricultural products.
1. The Internet of Things for agricultural production environment monitoring
The Internet of Things for Agricultural Production Monitoring mainly refers to the use of sensor technology to collect and obtain information on various elements of the agricultural production environment, such as light, temperature and humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, soil fertility, soil water content and other parameters in the planting industry, pH in the aquaculture industry, Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrogen, turbidity, and electrical conductivity, and the concentration of harmful substances such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and dust in the livestock and poultry breeding industry, guide the regulation of the agricultural production environment through the analysis and decision of the collected information, and realize the breeding and breeding Industry 's high yield and efficiency.
The agricultural production environment is complex, requiring continuous and uninterrupted operation in harsh and changeable environments such as high temperature, high humidity, low temperature, and rain, and the sensor nodes are sparsely and irregularly arranged, and wiring is inconvenient, while wireless sensor network networking is simple and requires no wiring. The advantages of low cost and flexibility have become the main application methods of the current agricultural production environment monitoring system.
2. Animal and Plant Life Information Monitoring Internet of Things
The research on the collection of plant information mainly includes the acquisition of apparent visual information and the acquisition of internal information, such as crop seedling growth, diseases and insect pests, fruit swelling, biomass, stem diameter, and leaf area. Including chlorophyll content, crop nitrogen, photosynthetic rate, seed vigor, leaf temperature and humidity, etc. The main monitoring methods are spectrum technology and image analysis;
The monitoring of animal life information mainly includes animal body temperature, weight, behavior, exercise amount, food intake, disease information, etc. Through relevant monitoring, understand the animal's own physiological and nutritional status and adaptability to external environmental conditions to ensure that the animal Individual healthy growth, the main monitoring methods include animal body monitoring sensors, video analysis and so on.
3. Intelligent agricultural machinery IoT
In recent years, with the progress of land circulation, the scope of agricultural machinery operations has been continuously expanded, agricultural machinery operation information is lagging, timeliness is poor, and effective monitoring methods are lacking. Organizers and participants of machinery collection have difficulty in meeting fast and accurate information requirements Gradually highlight.
How to effectively perform remote monitoring and scheduling of agricultural machinery operations through technical means, and improve work efficiency and operation quality, especially to ensure the quality of agricultural machinery at night and the intelligent level of agricultural equipment, is one of the urgent needs for the development of the Internet of Things for agricultural machinery. The main research directions of the agricultural machinery Internet of Things include agricultural machinery navigation automatic driving technology, remote monitoring and scheduling of agricultural machinery, and agricultural machinery quality monitoring.
4. Internet of things traceability of agricultural product quality and safety
Agricultural product information perception technology mainly includes appearance information such as the color, size, shape, and defect damage of agricultural products, and intrinsic quality information such as the maturity, sugar content, acidity, hardness, and pesticide residues of agricultural products.
Agricultural product quality safety and traceability The application of the agricultural Internet of Things is concentrated in agricultural product warehousing and agricultural product logistics and distribution. Electronic data exchange technology, barcode technology, and RFID electronic tags are used to automatically identify and enter items into and out of the warehouse. Real-time monitoring of warehouse workshops and logistics and distribution vehicles, so as to achieve the goal of tracing the source of major agricultural products and tracking them.
In the future, with the continuous development of the agricultural Internet of Things , the transformation from government-driven enterprise change to enterprise active change is the ultimate trend of the agricultural Internet of Things in the future. In the future, some enterprises will rely on the analysis and sharing of a large number of agricultural data, mining and utilization to make money and change the production and consumption methods of agricultural products.
June 5, 2018
Chengdu Xinxin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. Editorial Department
Editor: Little Devil in Gourd